pH levels can have an effect on the shape of the protein molecule and when the shape of the enzyme is changed, the ability to catalyze the reaction is taken away. This experiment tests the pH levels effect on the reaction rate of the catalase. Another variable in reaction rates is temperature. As temperature increases, reaction rates increase as well, but eventually the energy is too great which breaks down the enzyme structures. The experiment used to identify the effects of temperature on reaction rates is the measurement of foam produced in the reaction of catalase and hydrogen peroxide (Franzen).
FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME FUNCTION LAB#1 Background information Enzymes are specialized class of protein that acts as catalysts for the chemical processes within our cell which may occur slowly. To speed up these chemical reactions and for proper function, each enzyme binds with a substrate. The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme. This union of substrate to the active site lowers the activation energy. This energy reduction allows reactions to occur at faster rate.
The bonding then changes the chemical bonds in the enzyme, lowering the energy of activation, which is the natural way molecules react with one another. By lowering this energy the chemical reaction is able to speed up. This reaction makes the product and once these products are formed they no longer bind to the enzyme and move away allowing space in the active site for another substrate. Without enzymes an organism couldn’t function because the metabolic process would take to long. Enzymes help cells do everything from breaking down nutrients to protection from damaging free radicals.
In this lab we will investigate how amylase acts on starch, lipase on lipids, and trypsin on protein. Amylase is found in our saliva and breaks down starch for digestion. We will use iodine in the experiment to detect the presence of starch. When iodine makes contact with starch, its natural reddish-brown color turns dark purple. We will detect how long it takes for amylase to react and break down the starch.
It also would have effect on the amount of toxins that build up in our body; this would lead to a reduction to the supply of respiratory substrate. Enzymes are specific, meaning they can only catalyse one or sometimes two reactions. A protein called the active site uses the same arrangement of amino acids which causes the specific shape. It is the small part of the enzyme where the substrate binds and where catalysis occurs. The substrate finds a place to bind within the enzymes 3D shape.
Sucrose will be also used in the labs. Sucrose is a normal table sugar and is also a disaccharide composed of fructose and glucose. Although lactose is similar to sucrose, the enzyme lactase will only break down only it’s substrate, lactose, because of the shape of the sugar. Objectives/ Introduction Enzymes are protein molecules that speed up a chemical reaction. Enzymes are specific; they only work with certain substrates.
These fermentative bacterica produce an acidic environment within the tank. These bacteria will further break down the material into ammonia, H2, CO2, H2S, and shorter volatile fatty acids,but alas it is still too big for methane production! So, we go to our next stage to help break it down more. This process is called Acetogenesis. Acetogenesis is the creation of acetate, which is a derivative of acetic acid.
Like any other catalyst, enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy of a reaction hence offering an alternative route for the reaction to occur. Activation energy is the minimum energy required for a reaction to start. Enzyme’s specific tertiary structure is complementary to a specific substrate (molecules which enzymes work on to form the final product) and can only function efficiently at an optimum temperature and pH. Increasing temperature also increases the vibrational energy that molecules have, specifically in this case enzyme molecules, which puts strain on the bonds that hold them together. As temperature increases, more bonds, especially the weaker hydrogen and Ionic bonds, will break as a result of this strain.
However, enzymes are sensitive to changes in temperature and pH, which alter their shapes and can even destroy them (denaturing). Enzymes have evolved to work most efficiently at the temperature and pH found in the part of the organism where they are needed. Many enzymes in the human body function most efficiently at 37oC and pH levels depend on where in the body the enzyme is. The enzyme you will investigate is called catalase. Catalase is found in tissues of many organisms (both plants and animals) because it plays a very important role in protecting cells.
Here the three carbon pyruvic acid molecule is processed to produce ATP and carbon Dioxide molecules. This cycle uses ATP to specifically break down the pyruvate into Acetyl co-A. Once this goes through the cycle limited ATP as well as more NADH is produced .This happens in the mitochondria when sufficient oxygen is present to turn the carbon Dioxide. Is the role of the electron transport system? Include the reactants and the products.