FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME FUNCTION LAB#1 Background information Enzymes are specialized class of protein that acts as catalysts for the chemical processes within our cell which may occur slowly. To speed up these chemical reactions and for proper function, each enzyme binds with a substrate. The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme. This union of substrate to the active site lowers the activation energy. This energy reduction allows reactions to occur at faster rate.
LAB #1 ENZYME ACTIVITY AP Biology Introduction Enzymes are biological catalysts that carry out thousands of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. They are generally large proteins made up of several hundred amino acids, and often contain a non-proteinaceous group that is important in the actual catalysts. In an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the substance to be acted upon, the substrate, binds in the active site of the enzyme. The enzyme and substrate are held together in an enzyme-substrate complex by hydrophobic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds. The enzyme then converts the substrate to the reaction products in a process that often requires several chemical steps, and may involve covalent bonds.
Third, the substrate becomes activated through the enzyme-substrate complex, allowing the electrons and atoms to rearrange to form the product of the reaction. Fourth, the complex separates, releasing the product and enzyme independent of one another. Only the substrate is modified in the reaction, thus after being released enzymes may perform the same process. Each enzyme is specialized for a particular reaction, therefore many similar as well as different types of enzymes may be necessary for cell metabolism (McMurray, 1977). The four types of macromolecules that make up an organism’s diet are lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Enzyme Catalysis Lab Introduction: Enzymes are very important in the functioning of cells and allow constant life to exist. Enzymes are proteins that act as a catalyst which means that they affect reaction rates. Substrates which are the substances that are being catalyzed, stick together to an enzyme at the active site, which resembles a bonding site between them both. At this point, the enzyme speeds up the reaction that would occur slowly normally, and produces a product from the substrate. However, enzymes may sometimes fail to work properly for many reasons, and this “dead” enzyme is known to be denatured.
CATALASE INHIBITION EFFECT OF ZINC SULPHATE ON THE RATE OF CATALASE REACTION Practically all of the intricate biochemical reactions that occur in all organisms are regulated by enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions in cells. They break down molecules called substrates. Each enzyme has only one substrate that it breaks down. They have a globular shape, and a complex 3-D structure.
Complex also known as holoenzymes are composed of protein and small organic molecules. “Enzymes are catalysts that optimize cell activity while minimizing the amount of energy needed to achieve a specific reaction” (http://www.ariseandshine.com/enzymes-1.aspx) they are naturally produced by our bodies. Enzymes are categorized by their functions; metabolic enzymes, digestive enzymes, food enzymes, plant based enzymes, and proteoplytic enzymes. Enzymes are necessary for proper cellular function. (http://www.ariseandshine.com/enzymes-1.aspx).
Whereas the pH moves from a more acidic concentration to a more basic, with a constant concentration of enzymes, the absorbance increases, to acidic or basic the enzyme denatures. Introduction Enzymes are proteins that catalyze a chemical reactions. The ability for proteins to accomplish that depends on the three-dimensional shape, different enzymes have different shapes. Without enzymes catalyzing biochemical reactions, the reactions would happen to slowly, leaving the world a very different place. Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction, by binding to a substrate and forming an enzyme-substrate complex.
Next to the active site, but still a great distance away is the Allosteric site, sites containing receptors. The allosteric site is a part of enzyme activation, ‘the difference between the energy level of the transition state and the potential energy of reacting molecules.’ Another part of the enzyme activation is the activator, which links itself to the allosteric site; it changes the shape of the enzyme letting the active site to allow the substrate to latch on. Many cells can produce hydrogen peroxide as a toxic; this takes place by products from their own metabolic reaction. Another product cells can produce is catalase enzyme which helps breakdown hydrogen peroxide into water and O2 gas. Catalase enzyme 2 Hydrogen peroxide 2 water + oxygen + heat energy Every type of animal on Earth uses catalase in their organs, but it is commonly known that liver has the highest concentration.
A2. Deficiency in Aldolase B Aldolase B is used to help breakdown fructose. It will form the products DHAP and glyceraldehyde, which enter the glycolysis cycle and produce ATP. If the body is unable to produce aldolase B, there will be a build up of fructose-1-phosphate in the body. The levels of fructose-1-phosphate will become toxic in the body, which will create many problems.
The pancreatic duct in people who have cystic fibrosis frequently becomes blocked, reducing or preventing the release of pancreatic enzyme into the small intestine One enzyme can be used as many times over. There are two types of enzyme reaction; the first is 'Anabolic' reaction- this is when large molecules are built up from smaller molecules. The second type of reaction is called 'Catabolic' reaction- this is when large molecules are broken down into smaller ones. enzymes are highly selective, catalysing one specific reaction only. This specificity is due to the protein tertiary structure which creates the specific shape of an enzyme molecule * Digested food molecules are absorbed through the small intestine (into our blood) * Once in the blood, the digested food molecules are carried around the body, to where they are needed * Only small, soluble molecules can pass through the wall of the small intestine * The inside wall of the small intestine needs to be thin, with a really big surface area * This allows absorption to happen quickly and efficiently (so we absorb as much food as possible) * To get a big surface area, the inside wall of the small intestine is lined with tiny