Sucrose will be also used in the labs. Sucrose is a normal table sugar and is also a disaccharide composed of fructose and glucose. Although lactose is similar to sucrose, the enzyme lactase will only break down only it’s substrate, lactose, because of the shape of the sugar. Objectives/ Introduction Enzymes are protein molecules that speed up a chemical reaction. Enzymes are specific; they only work with certain substrates.
Cellular respiration does a lot more than just creating energy for us, it also helps us breathe and control our sugars. So the first stage of cellular respiration is glycolysis which is one of the most important stages because inside this stage the six-carbon glucose is split into two called the pyruvic acid which is located inside the cytoplasm. Glucose provides the energy to make ATP, and that is what helps our cells to work. During glycolysis, six-carbon glucose is broken in half forming two three carbon molecules. In order for the split to occur it needs energy of two ATP molecules.
Diagrams of Lock and Key Model A3b. Diagram of Activation Energy A4. Substrate The substrate of Aldolase B is fructose-1-phosphate. This comes from the breakdown of fructose by the use of fructokinase. Aldolase B is then converted into 2 products, DHAP and glyceraldehyde.
Here the three carbon pyruvic acid molecule is processed to produce ATP and carbon Dioxide molecules. This cycle uses ATP to specifically break down the pyruvate into Acetyl co-A. Once this goes through the cycle limited ATP as well as more NADH is produced .This happens in the mitochondria when sufficient oxygen is present to turn the carbon Dioxide. Is the role of the electron transport system? Include the reactants and the products.
Reabsorption in the main sites of the Kidneys. Reabsorption in the proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT) The PCT is the main site of reabsorption it is here that most of the materials will be reabsorbed into the blood. The materials are not directly absorbed straight into the blood first the move through the cells of the PCT and taken into the interstitial fluid.From here the molecules will diffuse into the blood through capillaries. The molecules that are reabsorbed are glucose, water Na+ and amino acids. All of the glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed at this site as well as around 85% of mineral ions.
The pancreatic duct in people who have cystic fibrosis frequently becomes blocked, reducing or preventing the release of pancreatic enzyme into the small intestine One enzyme can be used as many times over. There are two types of enzyme reaction; the first is 'Anabolic' reaction- this is when large molecules are built up from smaller molecules. The second type of reaction is called 'Catabolic' reaction- this is when large molecules are broken down into smaller ones. enzymes are highly selective, catalysing one specific reaction only. This specificity is due to the protein tertiary structure which creates the specific shape of an enzyme molecule * Digested food molecules are absorbed through the small intestine (into our blood) * Once in the blood, the digested food molecules are carried around the body, to where they are needed * Only small, soluble molecules can pass through the wall of the small intestine * The inside wall of the small intestine needs to be thin, with a really big surface area * This allows absorption to happen quickly and efficiently (so we absorb as much food as possible) * To get a big surface area, the inside wall of the small intestine is lined with tiny
Fall 2011 Name_________________________ FDNS 4100 Exam 2 A 1. The activated form of biotin is ____. A. Biocytin B. Bisnorbiotin C. Biotinidase D. Biotinyladenylate E. Biotinyl peptides 2. Glucosidase is the enzyme at the brush border of the small intestinal cells responsible for dephosphorylating pyridoxal phosphate prior to digestion. A.
This shape, especially in its “active site”, determines its catalytic effects. The active site of each enzyme binds to specific molecules – for example, the enzyme sucrase binds to sucrose but not to lactose, even though both are disaccharides. The reactant molecule that binds with to the active site of an enzyme and undergoes chemical modification is called the substrate of that enzyme. Some enzymes bind to two substrates to form products. Certain enzymes have metallic ions (such as Cu2+, Fe2+, Mn2+ ) as part of their active site
In people, glycogen synthase has two paralogous isozymes (Wikipedia, 2011). Glycogen synthase 1 is widely expressed throughout muscles and other tissue while glycogen synthase 2 is confined in the liver. The control of glycogen synthase helps regulate glucose storage and glycogen metabolism (Wikipedia, 2011). It is then directly controlled by an enzyme called GSK-3 which is glycogen synthase kinase 3, AMPK and protein kinase A (PKA) (Wikipedia, 2011). These proteins help phosphorylation turn Picture reaction glycogen causes 1 which in glycogen the by This Picture 1: Reaction catalysed by Glycogen Synthase.
Adenosine triphosphate is the energy storage molecule made using energy released during respiration and subsequently broken down into adenosine diphosphate and phosphate so that its stored energy is released to allow activities in cells to be performed. The reaction is summarized as follows: adenosine diphosphate+phosphate+energy⇌adenosine triphosphate | Both aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration begin with glycolysis in the cytoplasm. During glycolysis the substrate glucose is split into two pyruvate molecules. Enough energy is released to make 4 ATP molecules, but 2 ATP molecules are used so that the net gain is 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Then if oxygen is available both animal and plant cells carry out aerobic respiration in the mitochondria of the cells.