Compare and Contrast Structuralism and Functionalism Brandi Macias National University Psy 426 Dr. Paul Jenkins November 11, 2012 COMPARE AND CONTRAST STRUCTURALISM AND FUNCTIONALISM Structuralism and functionalism are both theories of psychology that found their origins in the early years of the birth of psychology. Both of these theories involved the study of the human mind and how it works. Additionally, they were both concerned with the mind at the conscious level. These are a few of the similarities between structuralism and functionalism. Throughout this paper we will further explore some of the differences between these two systems of psychology.
Three popular psychological approaches to explaining human behaviour are the biological approach, the behavioural approach and the cognitive approach. Outline the key features of these approaches in relation to both normal behaviour and psychopathology, and discuss which approach, in your own view, provides the best explanation for human behaviour. The Biological, Behavioural and Cognitive approaches are all main players on the Psychological field, and united by a concern to explain human behaviour on a nomothetic, scientific and observable level. This is perhaps the sum of common ground. They each have their own theoretical assumptions in terms of what constitutes behaviour; variously observable responses, inner experiences, cognitions and emotional states, or both.
With the use of Gibbs and John’s reflective model, the writer will critically examine acquisition of clinical knowledge and skills. The role of ethics in his professional development will also be explored The writer hopes to examine the strength and weakness of his practice and form conclusion and made recommendations for improving his professional development. He will examine critically inter professional collaboration in his current caring context and form conclusions and recommendation for improvement. Reference will be drawn from literatures to support the arguments and discussion, evidence based research will be used to support the views expressed. Reid (1993) defined reflection as a process of reviewing an experience of practice in order to describe, analyse, evaluate and so inform learning about practice.
They believed that behaviour is learned through our environment through operant or classical conditioning and that behaviour is just a response to a stimulus. Operant conditioning is a learning method to change behaviour through reinforcement to produce the desired response. Classical conditioning requires a stimulus to trigger a response by pairing with an unconditional stimulus. Skinner and Harlow’s aims were to look into the understanding of the different influences on human behaviour. Skinner was interested in the behaviourist way of observing and measuring behaviour.
Behaviourists explain maladaptive behaviour in terms of the learning principles that sustain and maintain it. Discuss this statement and show how a behaviourists approach to therapy is in stark contrast to psychoanalytic one. INTRODUCTION Behavioural psychology, also known as behaviourism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviours are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. According to behaviourism, behaviour can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental processes.
Question 2: Critically discuss the basic principles of CP. Situate your argument by referring to how a specific school can be manipulated to either perpetuate ideologies and ideas or how it can facilitate critical thinking. In discussing the basic principles of Critical Psychology, we need to establish what Critical psychology is – what its basic concerns are, etc. After doing that and reaching an understanding of what critical psychology is, we can look at how specific schools can be manipulated to either perpetuate ideologies and ideas or how it can facilitate critical thinking. Critical psychology is an approach rather than a theory, an orientation towards psychological knowledge and practice – and to relations of power in general.
Three methods of research in studying personality will be explored that includes case studies, correlational designs, and experimental designs or true experiments. Its differences, the kind of information it provides, and the advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. From a psychological viewpoint, personality is described as the psychological qualities that accounts for a consistent pattern in a person’s distinctive way of feeling, thinking, and behaving. Personality emerges internally and stays consistent throughout the life span of an individual. This is different from a conversational comment that someone has a great personality because theorist work at addressing the “what”, “how”, and “why” of personality.
However, it can be said that personality is a sequence of permanent traits, dispositions, motives, and characteristics within an individual, and these traits shape the person’s behavior.(J. Feist & G. J. Feist, 1998). As was mentioned earlier, different theorists interpret the meaning of personality in variety ways, thus, there exist several approaches to understanding human personality or human nature or soul. Generally, there are psychodynamic, behavioral, and phenomenological theories in psychology of personality. In this paper, I will try to provide a concise but clear information about psychodynamic approaches and their theorists in explaining the human nature.
Confirmation biasThe tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confirms our beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not.StructuralismA historical school of psychology devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up mind and thought. Structuralists sought the "elements" of conscious experienceIntrospectionthe process of reporting on one's own conscious mental experienceFunctionalismA historical school of psychology that believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function. Gestalt psychologyA historical school of psychology that sought to understand how the brain works by studying perception and perceptual learning. Gestalt psychologists believed that percepts consist of meaningful wholes.BehaviorismA historical school (as well as a modern perspective) that has sought to make psychology an objective science that focused only on behavior - to the exclusion of mental processes.PsychoanalysisAn approach to psychology based on Sigmund Freud's assertions, which emphasize unconscious processes. Biological viewThe psychological perspective that searches for the causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain and nervous system, and the endocrine (hormone) system.
Process Report of a Client Centred Therapy Session Reflection and Literature Review Gina Enache-Raw PS 4002 - Humanistic Approach and Skills Abstract The purpose of this process report is to critically evaluate my sensitivity within the counselling process and to assess my awareness of what was occurring within the therapy as this allows me to explore areas that have potential for further development and to increase my understanding of a humanistic framework. I will attempt to inform the reader about my interactions with the client and explain how I have made sense of the therapeutic process and what I have learned from the experience. One of the main reasons for choosing this particular session was because I have previously worked with the client and there were certain issues worth exploring from both, mine and client’s perspective. For example, as the reader will see from the excerpt the client spoke about issues within her family and I have considered this to be of a particular interest from both personal and multi-cultural perspectives. Process Report of a Client Centred Therapy Session Reflection and Literature Review "It is that the individual has within himself or herself vast resources for self-understanding, for altering his or her self-concept, attitudes and self-directed behavior - and that these resources can be tapped if only a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided."