Yet before analysing this, it is important to consider the main ideas behind Descartes’ meditations. The first of these see’s Descartes engage in a process of radical doubt, one which he believes will leave him with one certain truth, and thus a truth which can be used as a criterion to judge every other idea which he may obtain (Cottingham, 1992). The reason for this being the deceptive nature of the senses from which all his knowledge was obtained from. “All that up to the present time I
“Common-sense functionalism” is the product of the combination of two separate theories (Functionalism and Common-sense) intending to strengthen the idea of the general shape of the theory of mind. Simply put, it is a description theory of meaning and reference. The meaning and reference of a term is given by a description of a set of properties. This new theory departs from and rejects the antiquated dualistic theory of the mind, has adopted a part of the behaviorism theory, and redirects us into another vicious circle filled with yet more open-ended questions. I will explain the basic ideas of functionalism and explain how common-sense plays a role in the theory.
Hume and Kant – On Cause and Effect Compare and discuss the concept of causation as it appears in the philosophy of David Hume and Immanuel Kant. “Der ønskes en sammenligning af Hume og Kants analyse af årsagsbegrebet.” Units: 16.548 Introduction: This assignment has the goal of explaining and relating the concept of cause and effect as found in the philosophy of Hume and Kant. Causation is a vital concept to the human understanding of reality. Whether we will it or not it is as good as impossible to imagine the world without some notion of cause and effect. It is therefore not surprising that the grounding for this notion has been the subject of heavy debate.
Speech according to him is the transition of the mental to the verbal; he puts words to the superior position claiming that there is no possibility of science without words and perceptions thus neglecting empirical methods. Also we have desires and aversions, and those things that contradict our desires or aversion are seen as evil opposite – good. Further the power is defined as an instrument to get the desired object or to put another way to fulfill the appetite, one’s power may collide with another one’s that is what hold people from using it and it is called fear, not to use power because of fear is called manners. There are two types of power – one acquired from the moment of birth another through the experience. The state of nature is the war of all against all since not regarding that some maybe stronger than others everyone has capacity to kill, but people also have the Natural Rights like The Right for life – clash of these two takes place.
Taking the importance of transactional leadership style in the decision making process, leaders will make decision by using rationality and will engage in logic when making decisions (Loveren, 2007; Muhammad Naveed & Muhammad Tahir, 2014). Besides, Tatum et al. (2003) also found that these characteristics of transactional leadership style should be connected with less comprehensive decision style as well as reflect a style that puts the amount of information processed. In short, Eberlin and Tatum (2008) conclude that transactional leaders will concerned on how the organization deals out rewards and the policies when their followers participate in the decision making
Knowledge, Reflection, and the Tragic: The Case of Hamlet We are reaching a point in the term when the larger shape of our course, Knowledge and Reflection, should, we hope, be coming into view. We began with a focus upon some modern texts—Heidegger’s essay, with its luminous meditation on the character of scientific thought and how it differs from the kind of thought he calls Besinnung, translated into English as “reflection”; Heisenberg’s consideration of Goethe’s reaction to Newtonian science; and Buber’s exploration our tendency to reduce reality to a set of objectified “its” in ways that conceal what matters most. We then turned to an ancient dialogue by Plato, one which explored the nature of reason within a soul that is gifted with multiple forms of divine influence—most especially the form of divine mania named eros. We now turn to Shakespeare, a figure situated on the cusp, so to speak, between ancient and medieval wisdom about reality and the emerging epoch that calls itself modern. When we put together the syllabus for this course, we made an educated guess that Shakespeare had to be a part of it.
Habermas critiques Gadamer’s thought by questioning the overall concept and the central role of tradition, arguing the possibilities of certain sub-conscious interests and specific authorial forces that distort tradition. In order to accurately explore the thoughts and beliefs of Gadamer and Habermas surrounding that of the concept of “tradition”, one must first establish the basic foundation of hermeneutics upon which these ideas are to be centred. Heidegger offers an effective ground on which to base the majority of these philosophical positions for that of classical hermeneutics by initially revealing hidden meanings in hermeneutical texts, exploring authoritative objectives and developing a clearer overall understanding of them. A later shift in focus in hermeneutics during the 20th century brought about an apparent lean toward specifically “epistemological foundations… or the methodological principles which lead to objective knowledge in the human sciences” (Ormiston, G & Schrift, A, 1990), thus encouraging the questioning of knowledge to be centred upon that of “truth” and “Being”. To Heidegger, it is the former understanding which leads to a solid basis of
At the same time, however, our personal set of opinions control how we see things around us. We are the ones that are given the choice of what is being seen and what is believed. Empiricism began with John Locke who attacked Cartesian idea that reason alone could provide us with knowledge. Locke came out with the term of “Tabula Rasa.” It means that the mind comes into life blank, or empty and is written on by experience. Later, Philosopher Hume came out with his version of the “tabula rasa” principle, the copy theory of ideas.
The Culmination: A Twist on Self In “Responsibility for Self,” Charles Taylor articulates an account of the self that is a critical synthesis of Sartre, Frankfurt, and Heidegger views. Articulated below will be Taylor’s account of the self and how it developed from the other philosophers’ views. Taylor sees many virtues, as well as, problems contained within Sartre’s, Frankfurt’s, and Heidegger’s account of self and agency. A natural place to begin is with Charles Taylor’s concept of “responsibility for self.” For Taylor, responsibility for self consists in duty of radical re-evaluation of our deepest held belief: This radical evaluation is a deep reflection, and a self-reflection in a special sense: it is a reflection about the self, its most fundamental issues, and a reflection which engages the self most wholly and deeply. Because it engages the whole self without a fixed yardstick it can be called a personal reflection….
As the text states, it started with a concern for, “…explaining the processes of thought by using the technique of introspection (i.e., self-reflection)” (Wickens, 2005). Since self-reflection is biased then there had to be a more investigational method, conceivably, a method where the information could be observed and recorded. Psychology has become more about the study of behavior and mental phenomena, whereas, biopsychology is about the study of the brain and how it relates to behaviors. In my paper I will identify some of the important theorists that are associated with biological psychology and describe the relationship between biological psychology and other fields of psychology and neuroscience. I will also describe the major underlying assumptions of a biopsychological approach.