Psychologist differ from these attempts in their use of the scientific method, using both clinical and experimental studies to evaluate the construct of personality. There have been multiple theories to come out of this research. Some such as Sheldon's Constitutional Theory(Sheldon,1940), which hypothesised a link between body type and personality, are no longer in vogue. Others such as Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986) have a high heuristic value and are still used in therapy today. This essay will use two of these theories to offer a psychological interpretation of a fictional character and by doing so evaluate the merit of the hypotheses.
“Eysenck’s approach is one of the few to endeavor to take into account the biological bases of personality, personality theory, and evidence arising from rigorous empirical and statistical analyses of traits” (Friedman & Schustack, 2009, p. 277). Extensive research has proven that the biological approach to personality presents a link connecting the study of biology and personality. In contrast with the biological approach to personality, the humanistic approach to personality involves maters of personal worth and an individual’s ethics. According to the text, “Abraham Maslow called
Central to Freud's theory, and perhaps his greatest contribution to psychology, is the notion that our psyche is composed of parts within our awareness and beyond our awareness. Freud used the term psychoanalysis to label his theories and techniques for identifying and curing the mental problems of his patients. This essay will outline the main concepts that surround Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, thus showing how it can help us understand our clients presenting issues. In order for me to do this I will firstly describe the psychosexual stages in relation to personality development followed by briefly identifying some of the main criticisms. I will lastly concentrate on discussing the applications of his theory to therapy today.
According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve certain needs. Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" and his subsequent book Motivation and Personality. This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs. This hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid.
Running head: BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS 1 Burrhus Frederick Sinner: Behavioral Analysis Liberty University BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS 2 Abstract Burrhus Frederick Skinner presented behavior analysis and the idea of reinforcement, though he was not the first to discover behavioral analysis. His hard work and determination prospered him to become the man that he was. This paper concentrates on Burrhus and his proposed theory of behavior analysis, as well as its expansion. In addition it reveals the significance of using observation and other scientific techniques, in psychological studies. Several secondary sources have been cited to bring forth an understanding and to draw awareness to the broad spectrum of human behavior.
These psychologists and theorists all stemmed from the knowledge and efforts of Sigmund Freud. These concepts, psychologists and current psychodynamic concepts in today’s culture will be discussed in this paper. Why was Freud’s work so influential? Sigmund Freud was one of the greatest psychoanalytic theorist of all time and invented the psychodynamic approach that is used widespread in Psychology today. Freud’s concepts are used to delve deeply into people’s minds and how they look at relationships, outside influences in making decisions and their different level of consciousness.
He derived a hierarchy of needs, at the bottom of which are physiological needs, followed by safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Each need emerges with the satiation of the need before it. Maslow’s theory has sparked a wide range of research into whether his hierarchy order is accurate. There is some empirical evidence to suggest that some order of needs does exist. On the other hand, large range of research claims the ordering is ambiguous or overlapping.
Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Montoya Williams University Of Phoenix PSY/250 August 4, 2012 Melonie Purcell Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Personality is made up of the characteristics patterns of the thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique (Friedman and Schustack, 2012). Personality has been studied by many different psychologists, but the most modern understandings of personality come from the psychological research done on certain matters of nature of the self. The eight basic aspects of personality are Psychoanalytic, Neo-Analytic/Ego, Biological, Behaviorist, Cognitive, Trait, Humanistic/Existential and Interactionist, which all eight provides some important psychological insight on what it means to be a person (Friedman and Schustack, 2012). Humanistic and existential aspects of personality, focuses on freedom and self-fulfillment. I find to be one of the most important.
Moran quotes individuals such as Stephen J. Gould who is a scientist and paleontologist. Gould states that “In science “fact” can only mean “confirmed to such a degree that it would be perverse to withhold provisional consent.”” This is in congruence with Moran’s thesis that evolution is a fact and the mechanism of evolution is the only theory left. He repeatedly shows that there is too much evidence proving that evolution has and still is occurring to dispute it. Geneticist and evolutionist, Theodosius Dobzhansky, again confirms this in a quote used in the author’s essay. He says that “evolution (…) can only be doubted by those who are ignorant of the evidence or are resistant to the evidence.
Jung and Adler are the most significant theorists to follow Freud in this arena. Other schools of personality theory include: the “behaviourists” - viewing personality as a response tendencies developed through learning, Skinner and Pavlov being the better known theorists in this area; the “humanists” - focusing on the concept of “self” and arguing that incongruence, or the battle between one’s “self-concept” and reality creates anxiety and therefore defensive behaviour; the “biological” or “evolutionary” theorists, such as Eysenck who theorised that inherited differences in physiological functioning can affect an individual's conditioning and thus influence their personality (Weiten, Dunn, Hammer, 2012); and the “Trait” theorists such as Cattell and Allport and the more contemporary McCrae and Costa who have used the statistical procedure of factor analysis to reduce human personality down to five factors of personality known as “The Big Five”. These factors are: “Extroversion vs Introversion”, “Emotional Stabilty vs Neuroticism”, “Open vs Closed (to experience)”, “Agreeable vs Unagreeable”, “Conscientious vs Unconscientious”. Trait theorists argue that all personality traits are derived from these five traits. What follows is an outline of Freud’s theory of psychodynamics, and a description of the biological perspective on personality.