How might an understanding of human development help a psychodynamic counsellor work more effectively with a client? Introduction The foundation of Psychodynamic counselling is based on the theories that Sigmund Freud formulated, and his followers then moulded into their own theories or devised their own new theories over the years. All psychodynamic counsellors today use a mixture of the different theories in order to help and support the client. Problems like depression, anxiety, anger and social isolation can all be successfully treated and improved using some form of psychodynamic approach. (Aengel; 2010) In this essay, I want to do an overview of the different human developments and how by having an understanding of the effects each stages may have on an individual in adulthood, along with the use of the other psychodynamic approaches for example: transference, counter-transference, defence mechanisms and Malan’s triangle, will help the counsellor work more effectively with the client.
Sigmund Freud's theory is the psychoanalytic theory unique to a certain point and which it has developed formal models describing the ways in which individuals process information on different levels (Bornstein, 2010). Freud saw dreams as a way of unlocking unconscious thoughts and untold secrets. Sigmund created his theory through the importance of unconscious. Carl Jung accepted the unconscious idea and developed the analytic psychology. Both Freud and Jung were drawn to the unconscious way of explaining dreams.
Jung and Adler are the most significant theorists to follow Freud in this arena. Other schools of personality theory include: the “behaviourists” - viewing personality as a response tendencies developed through learning, Skinner and Pavlov being the better known theorists in this area; the “humanists” - focusing on the concept of “self” and arguing that incongruence, or the battle between one’s “self-concept” and reality creates anxiety and therefore defensive behaviour; the “biological” or “evolutionary” theorists, such as Eysenck who theorised that inherited differences in physiological functioning can affect an individual's conditioning and thus influence their personality (Weiten, Dunn, Hammer, 2012); and the “Trait” theorists such as Cattell and Allport and the more contemporary McCrae and Costa who have used the statistical procedure of factor analysis to reduce human personality down to five factors of personality known as “The Big Five”. These factors are: “Extroversion vs Introversion”, “Emotional Stabilty vs Neuroticism”, “Open vs Closed (to experience)”, “Agreeable vs Unagreeable”, “Conscientious vs Unconscientious”. Trait theorists argue that all personality traits are derived from these five traits. What follows is an outline of Freud’s theory of psychodynamics, and a description of the biological perspective on personality.
Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Monica N. Onumah Forsyth Technical Community College PSY 241 Dr. Anderson Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Introduction According to Erik Erikson (1950) “Children must eventually train their own children, and any impoverishment of their impulse life, for the sake of avoiding friction, must be considered a possible liability affecting more than one lifetime” (p. 311). Erikson was a very influential German born- American developmental psychologist. His theories on human development were unprecedented, and have been constructive in comprehending the way in which all humans develop. This paper will discuss the perspective Erikson held on human psychological and social development throughout all stages of their lives and how his theories are still utilized today (Weiland, 1993). Erik Erikson is known as the father of psychosocial development for his theories on human development.
He also linked some childhood desires with the development of ones personality. The psychoanalytic theory is founded on the basis that there are inner forces that influence ones behavior unconsciously. This theory was developed after a thorough observation of people’s behavior where Sigmund conducted case studies. Feud argued that human mind can be divided three parts; the conscious mind, the preconscious mind and the unconscious mind. According to Asch M (2004), the conscious mind includes the things that we are aware of.
Compare and Contrast Essay Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are both psychoanalytic theorists who both have very similar theories and ideas as to how a child's mind develops in its young years, but also have different theories as to what these stages are. These two theorist's ideas are easy to compare and contrast given that they are so similar to one another. Sigmund Freud in his theory, believes that events and experiences in our young lives affect our later adult life and that we are born with a set path as we go through these stages at specific times in our lives. These stages go along with his theory of ID, Ego, and Superego. ID, according to Freud is something we are born with that allows a person, to please themselves through basic needs.
Freud believed that past experience (from childhood) shapes adult personality and behaviour is influenced by unconscious mental processes. The therapist facilitates exploration of the past and via a number of skilled interventions and interpretations helps makes unconscious material conscious. The Humanistic school of thought whose major contributor was Carl Rogers (1902-1987), through the development of his ‘Client-Centered Therapy’, adopted a more positive view of human nature insisting that behaviour is a personal choice (free will) and driven by the “...actualizing tendency, that force which moves us in the direction of well-being and the fulfilment of our potential” (Tolan, 2010, p. 110). He believed that humans possess an innate capacity for growth, can take responsibility for their actions and demonstrated the importance of six therapeutic conditions which help to foster the client’s natural ability towards improvement. This approach places
The psychodynamic perspective says that our behaviors and feelings as adults are deeply rooted from our childhood experiences. According to this view, our personality is made up of three parts: the id, ego, and super-ego. Also, behaviors are motivated by two instinctual drives: Euros and Thanatos (McLeod). The id, ego, and superego are proposed by Freud as “stages which play an important role in how we interact with the world”(Heffner). The id, being the first stage, is more concerned with having basic needs met.
Psychodynamic traits are focused on the belief that all problems as adults are considered to be directly related to events that occurred in one’s childhood. Certain therapists that go by this theory have the concept that is has to do with parental upbringing and the focus is mainly on repairing these traits that were developed early on. As far as both of these theories go, the trait theory has a lot to do with the psychodynamic theory in the aspect that we develop all of our traits from early childhood. Certain traits, whether they may be good or bad are developed at this stage and as we reach maturity. Certain traits may be lacking due to this.
“Describe and critically evaluate the theories of Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic approach and summarise and evaluate two other approaches in relation to their explanations of human behaviour” This essay will describe the theories of Sigmund Freud. It will evaluate Freud’s theories and will also find if any strengths and weaknesses were apparent within his studies. Also covered will be to compare and contrast two other theories, cognitive and humanism. Sigmund Freud (1865-1939) remains one of the best known and most argued about psychologist and his studies were quite profound. Freud began his journey into psychology by starting as a doctor, neurology being his speciality.