Moreira (2012) stated, “Humanistic-phenomenological psychotherapy is a contemporary development of person-centered therapy” (p. 3). Carl Rogers was an influential psychologist as well. The article on Carl Rogers describes his findings and the importance of his research and how these findings are researched even further. Many changes have been made to the Rogerian theory, which originated from a clinical theory of psychotherapy, Rogers work expanded into other areas such as education (Moreira, 2012). Psychologists and researchers around the world have continued the study of Rogers’s person-centered
Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: From Miller to Bandura and Beyond The Social-Cognitive learning theory is based off a collaboration of many psychologists work and ideas, it is based on the concepts that we learn (and gain our personalities) by watching how others react to their environment. The original concept originated from psychologists N.E Miller and J. Dollard in the early 1940’s. In the mid 1950’s American psychologist Julian Rotter drifted from the theories of psychoanalysis and behaviourism and wrote on social learning theories. In the 1960’s a Canadian psychologist, Albert Bandura, expanded on theories and became the leading architect of social cognitive theory (Santrock, 2011, p. 27). In 1941 N.E Miller and associate J. Dollard proposed that one could learn a behavior by observing that behavior in others.
This essay will outline and evaluate some of the most innovative and prominent areas of development, in the person centred approach since the death of Rogers. It will focus on some of the key figures to contribute to these developments, and how they impacted on the style of Person centred therapy. The Person centred or Rogerian Approach is based on concepts from humanistic Psychology and was developed in the 1930’s by American Psychologist Carl Rogers. It was a move forward from previous therapies such as Freud’s psychoanalysis which placed the therapist in a detached superior form over the client. In person or client centred therapy as it is also known, the client and therapist are viewed as equal and it was Rogers who established that the person should be referred to as ‘client’ instead of ‘patient’ as his previous successors had done.
Understand the Principles of Other Therapeutic Models of Counselling 2.1 Explain the key features of two other therapeutic models Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) was pioneered by Aaron Beck in the 1960s, while he was a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. Becks work was influenced by previous work of psychologists B.F Skinner and J.B Watson and their work around conditioning. Becks approach was based on the ideas that how we think (cognition), how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behaviour) all interact together. Specifically, our thoughts determine our feelings and our behaviour therefore negative and unrealistic thoughts can cause us distress and result in problems. When a person suffers with psychological distress the way in which they interpret situations can become skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take.
A lot of resources will refer to intellect as the ability to learn or reason. Piaget was particularly interested in this area in relation to the cognitive development of the child. In the history of psychology, as it progressed throughout the 18th century, various 'schools of psychology' developed. Two examples of the schools are Behaviourism and Structuralism. Constructivism is another school of psychology, and focuses directly on how people learn; specifically how knowledge is acquired and how it is transformed into learning.
In the 1950s’ Rogers called his approach client-centred and later in the1960s person-centred-therapy because of its focus on the client's individual view of the world and their needs were put at the centre. His ideas culminated in his necessary and sufficient conditions writings in 1957 and 1969. During the 1980’s and 1990’s his approach was broadened to education, industry, groups and conflict resolution. Many others have contributed and developed PCT, Natalie Rogers, Carl Rogers’ daughter, developed “person-centred expressive therapy” which engages clients and group members in the creative arts, Eugene Gendlin developed “focusing oriented”, “experiential psychotherapy “ to help clients tune in to their “inner experiencing” in greater depth, Gary Prouty’s “pre-therapy" uses PCT principles e.g. acceptance, non-judgemental and a non-directive approach.
Structuralism was developed by a man named Edward Titchener who was a student of Wilhem Wundt. Titchener was extremely interested in learning about the structure of the consciousness. He believed in the use of experimentation for the science of psychology (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). The second school of thought, functionalism, along with structuralism was the two schools of thought which were dominant in the beginning of psychology (Kowalski & Westen, 2009). Functionalism studied the psychological processes which enable individuals to be able to adapt to their environments; each psychological process has an important role which is their main point of focus.
The article had tons of information on the co-occurring of mental illness and substance abuse. It had a very broad discussion on different kinds of mental illness. This article explained each mental illness and their symptoms. I found this information very important because knowing this information will give more insight on the different disorders that cause people to turn to drugs. The author of the article was Bernice A. Pescosolido, it was created Dec 9, 2009, revised April 28, 2010, accepted June 3, 2010.
However, one may sometimes decide to use therapy and medication simultaneously. The kind of the therapy that is normally being used in the treating of the social disorder is the cognitive behavioral therapy. The cognitive behavioral therapy will assist the person in leaning to cope with and change from irrational thinking that causes fear and the therapy also assist the person to engage in social skills practices. The cognitive and behavioral therapies are usually applied together on a person since they relate or go hand in hand. CBT was first developed in 1950s where it was know as rational emotional behavioral therapy (Albert Ellis, 1995).
Outline and critically evaluate the concept of the ‘psychological contract’. Why is an understanding of the psychological contract important to the management of the contemporary employment relationship? The ‘psychological contract’ is an increasingly important aspect within the contemporary employment relationship. Descriptions and definitions of the ‘psychological contract’ first emerged in the 1960’s, notably in the work of organisational and behavioural theorists Chris Argyris and Edgar Schein. Many other experts have contributed to the subject since then, and continue to do so.