2. Social Learning theory Albert Bandura Albert Bandura is a North American psychologist. He was one of the psychologists who worked on social learning on theory known as observational learning. His social learning theory explains behaviour as the result of learning from people we are exposed in our environment. (B.
Moral judgment is the ability to evaluate the righteousness of a hypothetical action while moral behavior refers to one’s ability to act moral in actual situations. (Muuss, 176) The reason this distinction is necessary is that Kohlberg’s works and the study done for this paper revolves specifically around the observation of moral judgment. Jean Piaget first developed a theory that moral judgment was created by two stages through his studying of children’s cognitive thinking. This work would be a foundation upon which Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, developed a theory that moral judgment could be subdivided into six identifiable stages of moral reasoning with three different levels. Kohlberg developed this theory from interviews with groups of young children and their responses to “moral stories”, which were then coded into Kohlberg’s stages.
Skinner as a behavioural psychologist believed that the study of observable behaviour is more productive that being concerned with the internal goings on of the mind. He held the belief the best way to understand behaviour was to observe the causes of an action and the associated consequences. He gave this approach the name operant conditioning (McLeod, 2007). In 1957, Skinner’s book Verbal Behaviour was published which introduced the notion that language is behaviour. In the book Skinner (1957; cited in Pavio & Begg 1981) identifies what he calls ‘Verbal Operants’ further broken down into Mands, tacts, ethoics, textuals and intraverbals.
By comparing the psychologists’ experiments we get a greater insight into children’s requirements not just for necessities like nourishment but their innate need to be loved. Although both researchers were influenced by Bowlby’s theory of attachment, their methods were diverse. The aim of this essay is to show the similarities and differences of the two psychologists. The essay will at look at society at that time, with a breakdown of their findings. Also it will explain the discoveries made by the researchers, comparing the species used, show their methodology, comparing replicating and ethics of both experiments.
So, behaviourists such as Guthrie, Skinner and Spencer set out to discover how people learn (as cited in McLeod, 2008, pg. 132-133). In this essay I shall compare and contrast how the psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural model of counselling understands the person. Firstly, the psychodynamic approach is based on Sigmund Freud’s practice. Psychodynamic counselling places a great emphasis in exploring the types of feelings and dilemmas that have caused difficulties in a person’s everyday life.
his findings implied that behaviours such as aggression are determined by a persons social environment. When Bandura also rewarded the role models aggression, the children's aggresion increases, showing that learning can also be vicarious. Another theory actions with positive consequences will continue. This was demonstrated when Bandura directly rewarded the children for their aggressive behaviour. This reinforcement theory is also linked to Skinners idea of behaviourism but with the newer idea that watching consequences to others behaviours, we learn how to react in a similar situation to achieve a positive outcome.
Taken together, Dewey’s philosophical pragmatism, Lewin’s social psychology, and Piaget’s cognitive-developmental genetic epistemology form a unique perspective on learning and development. (Kolb, 1984). Introduced by David A. Kolb (1939), Kolb’s experiential learning theory is a four-stage cyclical theory of learning from a holistic perspective that combines experience, perception, cognition, and behavior (Kolb, 1984). The Experiential Theory of Learning (ELT) model outlines two related approaches toward gaining experience: Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization, as well as two related approaches toward transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. According to Kolb’s model, the ideal learning process engages all four of these modes in response to situational demands (Coffield, Moseley, Hall & Ecclestone ,2004).
Akers (1977) modified the differential association-reinforcement theory and called the new theory “social learning,” emphasizing the synergy between sociology and psychology. The key concepts of the new theory were differential association and definitions (from Suther1and’s 1947 theory), and differential reinforcement and imitation (from behavioral science’s learning theory) (Akers, 1977; Akers, 1998). Social learning theory’s basic assumption is that the same learning process produces both deviant and conforming behavior (Akers, 1998). The learning process operates in a context of social structure, interactions, and situations (Akers, 1998). The probability of criminal (deviant) or conforming behavior occurring is a function of the variables operating at the underlying social learning process (e.g., reinforcement)(Akers, 1977; Akers, 1998).
Introduction Akers social learning theory is also known as differential association- reinforcement theory. It has its roots in Sutherland’s differential association theory and the behavioral psychology of Skinner and Bandura. Akers (in Brown et al 2001:312) argues that both law-abiding behaviour and criminal behaviour can be explained by means of his social learning theory. Key elements in terms of behaviour: Akers identified four key elements which form part of the complex learning process that influences human behaviour: - differential association - definitions - differential reinforcement - imitation Differential Association This component in Aker’s theory is of primary importance. According to Aker, the individuals with whom one decides to differentially associate and interact play an integral part in providing the social context wherein social learning takes place.
Titchener Studied at Cornell University Introduced structuralism- An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore structural elements of the human mind. Aimed to discover the elements of the mind, his method was to engage people in self reflective introspection (looking inward). William James Thought it more fruitful to consider the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings. assumed that thinking like smelling developed because it was adaptive and contributed to our ancestors survival. Developed the philosophy of pragmatism, which tested truth by its practical