Studies suggest that younger children may be more vulnerable to the effects of witnessing domestic violence than older children (Johnson and Lieberman, 2007) so it is very disturbing to recognize that young children are more likely to witness incidents of violence than older children (Ybarra, Wilkens, & Lieberman, 2007). Witnessing these acts of violence has a detrimental effect on the cognitive development as well as emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in preschoolers (Lieberman, 2007; Ybarra, Wilkens, & Lieberman). Studies show that dysfunctional development can be deterred through a positive relationship with mother and child, and that resilience is possible if a nurturing relationship exists in which the mother is attuned to her
So if a child is spanked and it does not make them a violent person, then why is it so bad for a parent to discipline their child? My research has shown that corporal punishment tends to lead the child to show signs of antisocial behavior. “the findings on the relation of corporal punishment to Antisocial Behavior show that the more corporal punishment experienced by the children in Year
It first came on the market in the 1960’s. In the Experiment the groups of kids were separated into three groups. 1. Aggressive model shown to 24 children (12 boys 12 girls), in which the adults attacked the Bobo doll in a distinctive manner, sometimes using a hammer, and in others threw the doll in the air and shouted "Pow, Boom." 2.
Bandura’s experiment on children being exposed to aggressive behaviour and therefore imitating this behaviour is somehow evidence to show that on some occasions, behaviour can be learnt. There are many different ways people can learn criminal behaviours from other people, for example having a sibling that always steals, or having a aggressive father who uses physical harm in order to control people. Being exposed to behaviour like this in everyday life and when people you love or may respect, like your family are portraying this behaviour, then this may be seen as the norm for people and they may think it is okay to imitate this behaviour. There have been many different studies and theories into how upbringing can influence people into turning to crime. For example Farrington conducted an experiment into how disrupted families can affect how likely someone is to turn to crime, and they found that most participants defined as ‘chronic offenders’ shared the same or similar characteristics, for example convicted parents, delinquent siblings and young parents.
But there is a big difference between using physical punishment to discipline and physical abuse. The point of disciplining children is to teach them right from wrong, not to make them live in fear. However, it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse, or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser. Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. One U.S. study found that parents with documented substance abuse, most commonly alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, were much more likely to mistreat their children, and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments (Besharov, 1990).
1961 Bobo doll experiment: Conducted by Albert Bandura and colleagues in 1961, the study investigated whether children’s behaviours would be influenced by those they observed in an adult model. Bandura had a number of predictions/hypothesis’s about the outcomes of the Bobo Doll Experiment, fitting with his views on the theories of social learning; -Children witnessing an adult role model behaving in an overly aggressive manner would be likely to replicate similar behaviour themselves, even if the adult was not present. -Subjects who had observed a non-aggressive adult would be the least likely to show violent tendencies, even if the adult was not present. They would be even less likely to exhibit this type of aggression than the control group of children, who had seen no role model at all. -Children would be much more likely to copy the behaviour of a role model of the same sex.
Behavioral theory states that people act aggressively because, as children, they modeled their behavior after the violent acts of adults. When they get older, they become antisocial. As a child when they were awarded for doing things, they thought it was good and it became habitual and the behavior that is punished becomes extinguished. A sub branch of behavioral theory is social learning theory. They act violently when people pick on them, threaten them, or they are exposed to direct pain.
The fifth principle is: “The consequences that follow people’s behaviors affect their future learning and behavior.” In this principle, “consequences” doesn’t necessarily mean a form of punishment, it may mean constructive criticism. The last principle is: “There is considerable diversity in what different people learn
In Cognitive learning individuals learn by listening, watching, touching, reading, and others actions. Cognitive learning focuses on how each of these components is affected by morals and the surrounding environment. According to the cognitive theory, it is very important to change a person’s thoughts and beliefs in order to change his or her behavior. Social learning theory is considered to be the direct link between behaviorist and social cognitive learning. Therefore; there are two important components of cognitive learning and they are social cognitive and cognitive behaviorism.
These students who use motivational beliefs also utilize more self regulation learning skills (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). The performance of these students ultimately results in their performance that would otherwise be considered less adaptive through their counterparts (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). Schunk and Zimmerman (1997) reported that the social cognitive theory of self regulation is extremely useful in finding how students are able to succeed throughout their education. According to Schunk and Zimmerman (1997), “the social cognitive models distinguish themselves from a purely cognitive theory and they focuses on the interrelationship among learners... their beliefs use self generated learning strategies” (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997). The social cognitive model is one that is places emphasis on explaining how the individual’s personal behaviors and beliefs are influenced by the individuals learning environment (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997).