Effects of Narcotics on the Braim

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The Effects of Narcotics on the Brain Opium derived from the poppy seed is the main ingredient in narcotics. Opium has been used since the ancient Greeks to relieve pain and achieving euphoria. In the 19th century, morphine was isolated and then in turn, codeine. The most significant ingredient in opium is morphine. Because of easy access and the invention of the hypodermic needle, people started abusing the drug. Heroin was then developed from morphine, which is up to 10 times as strong as morphine. In modern times, narcotics are administered to patients with chronic pain. Immediately after taking narcotics, nausea and vomiting may occur. Common short term effects are the constriction of pupils, drowsiness, apathy, slow breathing and dilation of blood vessels. Confusion and a persistent itching sensation can be effects too. Such slow breathing may cause a user to slip into a coma as well as nerve damage from convulsions. After using this drug, users usually get addicted to the euphoric feeling and go from inhaling to injection. Users build up a tolerance and give way to a physical dependency upon the drug, making the addict need larger and larger doses. Also, once worn off, physical and psychological withdrawal set in. When a user cannot get narcotics, vomiting, diarrhea, chills, convulsions and severe pain can set in. Many people neglect their basic responsibilities such as eating. Narcotic addiction may cause collapsed veins, infections underneath the skin, pockets of infections in the heart and lungs, infection with hepatitis B and even HIV/AIDS. Using for the first time is voluntary in most cases, however, addiction can set in easily. Biological factors play a role in addiction. Scientists estimate that between 40 an 60 percent of a person’s chances of addiction are genetic, along with effects of their environment on gene expression. Adolescents’ brains
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