Later on, Darius would change his mind again, even sending letters to the Greek soldiers to kill Alexander. The use of propaganda by the Persians in the hope of defeating Alexander the Great would ultimately fail for many reasons. Persian propaganda did have some influence on the minds of some Greeks. Especially with their anti-Macedonian feelings. The Greeks were also receiving propaganda from the Macedonians which they believed over the Persians.
The helots had revolted following an earthquake and had taken up position in the strategic stronghold of mount Ithome. Epilates saw Sparta as a rival and enemy and Cimon managed to persuade the assembly to send a force to help. On arrival the Spartans regretted asking the Athenians and sent them home. Thucydides said this was because of the bold and evolutionary ideas of the Athenians that led to this idea. Thucydides said that the Athenians returning home were deeply offended with this treatment by the Spartans and said it is not what they deserved.
The Greeks had the distinction of populating Southern Italy at the beginning of the Kingdom of Rome, and were later subject to conquest on both the home peninsula and Aegea. As the Romans had done with Etruscan culture, they adopted Greek customs as time progressed. It is important to keep in mind that the post-Alexandrian conquest Mediterranean was dominated by Hellenism, and cities such as Athens and Alexandria had given birth to an enormous cultural hegemony. The first and most obvious influence upon Roman culture lie in art. Though the Etruscans made Roma a metropolis, the Romans themselves adopted Greek artistic customs instead.
Well, the war's losses caused much distress which led to a group of antidemocratic citizens to overturn the democracy in 411 B.C. Other citizens were not fond of this so they restored the democratic government. Athens continued to fight on and the end came during the last ten years of the war. This is because the actions had moved to the east, along the western coast of Anatolia and its islands; this was known to be the western boundary of the Persian Empire. The Persian Empire had sent money to help the Spartans build a strong navy.
When Philip of Macedon conquered Greece in 1338 B.C.E., Greeks did not feel the gods had deserted them. They simply believed that Philip for all his power and glory, was just one more tool in the hands of the Olympians. When he was assassinated in 336, only two years after his dramatic triumph, his new subjects nodded knowingly to one another: the gods had grown tired of him. These sorts of intriques, of course, would have been typical among the gods, and therefore familiar to both Greeks and Macedonians. Ruling the former Persian Empire turned out to be more difficult than defeating it.
This resulted in the founding of an Arcadian League under the leadership of the new found city of Megalopolis. Most important however was that Thebes refounded Messenia as an independent state in 369 after many years of helotage. Sparta sank to second-class among the Greek Poleis, and this allowed Thebes and Athens to pursue their rivalry in the vacuum created by the sudden disappearance of Sparta. After the battle they sent heralds to Athens proclaiming their victory over the Spartans, but Athenians were not satisfied with the turn of events. Now they had a new superpower a few miles from Athens.
The Persian Wars by: Alec Norwood World History Mr. Jordan 1st Period October 12, 2007 The Persian Wars INTRODUCTION The Persian Wars were fought between the Greeks and the Persians between the years 490 and 479 B.C.E. The main conflict between the Greeks and the Persians began in Ionia, home of Herodotus. Many Pre-Socratic philosophers believe it started because the empire building (land hungry) Persians tried to capture and bring the Ionians under their power and control. The Persians were successful with some of the Ionian Greeks but others asked the mainland Greeks for help because they did not want to be ruled by the Persians (Hooker, 1999). IONIAN REVOLT The wars began in 490 B.C.E.
In the thousands of years men have formed nations and established dominance over one another, no other event has made as much an impact on military history as the Punic Wars during the fourth and third century BC. The Punic Wars served to demonstrate to all of the known civilized nations at that time the type of world power the Romans were willing to prove themselves to be.. With strategy, deception, and ultimate persistence, they shifted the balance of power in the European-Mediterranean region. But the larger change was a shift of power within the Rome itself that was brought by the larger, stronger military organization. It would serve to de-crease the supremacy of the Senate and Consul and give rise to a form of government. The first Punic War began almost
In the summer of 480 B.C a battle took place that would forever change the history of the Greeks and that would eventually influence the way in which the Western world looked at war. The Spartans took their stand against the massive army of Persians in a three day battle which resulted in the Persians taking the win but may have very well led to the Greeks winning the Greco-Persian War. A culmination of strong tactical skill and bravery contributed to the Spartans making a stand much longer and stronger than anybody could have ever predicted. The Persian king Xerxes led his massive army through the narrow mountain pass known as Thermopylae expecting no considerable fight on the part of the Spartans. The Persians bid to conquer Greece was significantly
Alexander’s destruction of the Persian monarchy created opportunities for Greek administrators, engineers, intellectuals, merchants, soldiers, eta al and those who followed Alexander and his successors could participate in the new political unity based on the monarchy’s principles. His successors used force to establish military monarchies that dominated the Hellenistic world after his passing. Autocratic power became a regular feature of those Hellenistic monarchies and was part of Alexander’s political legacy. It is obvious that his vision of empire inspired the Romans who were the real heirs of his legacy. He left not just a political legacy, but a cultural one which resulted in Greek language, art, architecture and literature which spread throughout the Middle East.