Operant conditioning is based on the research that skinner carried out. Operant conditioning is when an individual is directly rewarded in some way, so they repeat this behaviour. If they are punished for behaviour, then they would be less likely to repeat it. All individuals are aware that their behaviours lead to a consequence. SOCIAL LEARNING Social learning believes that we learn our behaviour from the people around us.
Human behaviour is the result of experience. For example an individual who has been brought up in an environment in which people are caring this will have an effect on the person’s behaviour as they will learn to help others. However an individual who has been brought up in an environment in which people don’t care about others emotions, it will encourage the individual to treat others unfairly as they will think it’s ok because they have been brought up this way. Stretch, B and Whitehouse, M (2010) Classical conditioning Classical conditioning is a theory which was developed by Ivan Pavlov which was a Russian physiologist. Pavlov designed an investigation which was tested on dogs to investigate their digestive system.
First is the idea that people can learn through observation. Next is the idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behaviour. Piaget – Cognitive Development He became intrigued with the reasons children gave for their wrong answers on
In its place, he then went further to recommend that, we as humans ought to come across only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Describe the theory of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning defines as learning from which an intentional response is weakened or strengthened solely depending on its encouraging or fault-finding outcomes. Operant conditioning is one of the fundamental concepts in behavioral psychology. The guarantee or chance of a reward within itself has the ability to cause an enhance in a person’s behavior, however operant conditioning can also be used to diminish a behavior.
For each set of learning materials list the strengths and weaknesses for analysis. During the analysis, the trainer can decide if new materials need to be created based upon the training criteria and factual information. Break the information into separate parts and analyze components to look for interrelationships. Use the information to solve problems in demonstrations to help trainees relate the details in context. Role playing is another method to ensure the new information is retained by trainees.
If the instructor reacts by yelling or attempting to force the student, he or she is learning they can gain attention or control of the classroom through their behavior. Whether we like it or not, we are always and forever learning. Research concerning learning and behavior is important because we cannot influence or change behavior unless we understand how the behaviors were learned in the first place. In fact, a big part of psychology is studying human and/or animal behavior to discover how behaviors are learned and why they occur. Psychologists then use their understanding of learning and behavior to treat psychological disorders and addictions.
First of all, they are both all to do with behaviour and focuses on how our behaviour is learnt. Both theories have their own interpretation on how the behaviour is learnt and why you behave the way you do, but they still both look at the behaviour of people and the different ways it is learnt. The theories also both show that you behaviour is learnt through someone else. Whether it be from the social learning theory where you learn from copying others, or from the behaviourist theory where you learn through getting punished and praised from other people. They
Other experiments to prove this can be seen with Little Albert, a boy who when around two years old, was experimented on which left him with such a bad experience his mother had to withdraw him from the experiment when she found out what was going on. Psychologists gave Albert a white rat, then struck a loud gong behind him whenever he picked it up or cuddled it. This continued until
The last thing that B. F. Skinner was learning was that, to speed up the response acquisition during operant conditioning is to reinforce successive approximations to desired responses. This approach was called shaping. We might first reward the rat for turning toward the response bar. Once the rat has learned this behavior, we might withhold reinforcement until the rat moves towards the bar. Later we might reward it only for sniffing the bar or touching it with its nose or paw.
I feel it is important to take into account the personalities of the children, as learning may be inhibited if one child is particularly domineering or intimidating. It is also necessary to look at the subject being taught and be flexible in the grouping of children. I personally feel that for subjects such as Literacy and Numeracy, where there is pressure for academic success the children should be split into ability groups. I feel by working in ability groups, the children are still able to support each other and there is still a hint of Vygotsky’s ZPD theory being practised, as there is still a range of abilities within an ability group and the more able of one particular ability group, can support the others in the group. It is important to remember that no one child is the same as another, even if they are classified as being of similar ability.