The dogs were responding to the sight of the research assistants' white lab coats, which the animals had come to associate with the presentation of food. Unlike the salivary response to the presentation of food, which is an unconditioned reflex, salivating to the expectation of food is a conditioned reflex. An unconditioned stimulus like food causes pleasure when eaten, this is unconditioned response as it is not learnt. Caregivers provide food and subsequent pleasure for the infant. So their presence becomes associated with the
After allot of trails, Pavlov discovered that he had no longer needed to present the food to the dog. The dog alone then salivated just to the sound of the bell. Pavlov successfully demonstrated that this behaviour was learnt and that the salvation of the dogs to a sound of a bell when they have been conditioned to hearing that bell before being presented with food that this behaviour is determined by the reinforcement of learning experiences. The strengths of the behaviourist approach is that approach provides strong arguments for the nurture side of the nature-nurture debate, behaviourists also use rigorous , experimental methods to research, this enhances the credibility of psychology as a scientific discipline. This approach has also provided varied amount of practical reliability and ways to shape a person or animals behaviour.
The scenario will be explained and a chart will be complied that will demonstrate how classical conditioning applies to this scenario. Classical Conditioning Theory Ivan Petrovich Pavlov is the founder of the classical conditioning theory. Pavlov, a Russian psychologist was studying the secretion of stomach acids and salivation of dogs when they were presented with different kinds and different amounts of food (Feldman, 2010). While doing so, Pavlov noticed that the amount of salivation would often increase when the dogs had not eaten any food. The mere presence of the person who supplied the food or the footsteps of that person would stimulate the dogs and more stomach acid would be produced (Feldman, 2010).
Generally dogs in response to a bowl of food salivated however they wanted to see if they could pair this with a bell ringing. So every time they dogs received their food the bell rang and in the end when the bell rang the dogs salivated because they already associated the bell ring with their food. Operant conditioning however is the course of altering behaviour by receiving rewards and punishments. In this experiment they made a cat learn that every time it gets out of the box that it was placed in got a reward. This means it learnt doing the same escape routine because it knew the consequences were rewarding.
Classical conditioning is made using two stimuli. in the experiment Pavlov used sound of a bell a as a neutral stimuli and dog food as unconditioned stimuli which causes the dog to salivate. Pavlov presented the dogs with a ringing bell followed by food. The food elicited salivation, and after repeated bell-food pairings the bell also caused the dogs to salivate. In this experiment, the unconditioned stimulus is the dog food as it produces an unconditioned response, saliva.
People need to learn how to love and care for them and these classes would be a tremendous booster for them. The main dog that is going to be helped the most will be Pit Bulls because society believes that they were bred to be killers and they weren't. This will inform you on some history of this breed, the love and affection that they really want, and my big idea which is classes for the more dominant breeds to help get them out of shelters and understood better. Don't judge a Pit Bull by its breed because you never know what is underneath till you take a chance; all dogs make mistakes. “In 1917 a Pit Bull by the name of Sgt.
Training a Chihuahua is going to have its ups and downs. When you’re training any type of bread you need patients. But Chihuahua’s are intelligent dogs so it might be easer. For teaching a Chihuahua you need stuff such like stuffed animal, treats, chew toys and some one to help you. Chihuahua’s came from China but were named from a place called Chihuahua Mexico in Mexico.
Food is a primary reinforcer, because it removes the discomfort it reinforces the behaviour. The reward reinforces the action so the baby repeats it. A strength that supports this theory is that it shows we do learn through association and reinforcement however food may not be the only factor. Weaknesses of this theory are that the psychologists approach used animals such as Pavlov’s dogs and Skinner’s rats and other psychologists would say that this is not valid because humans behave differently. Evidence to support this theory is from Ivan
Ivan Pavlov integrated the two into a step-by-step deductive process that connects behavioral reflexes to different sensory responses. Pavlov is the father of this type of classical conditioning; in his famous research on canine salivary glands, Pavlov triggered the different senses of the dogs. One example is when Pavlov substituted fake food in an attempt to trigger the dogs’ glands at the mere sight of food. If the dog salivated at first sight, but upon further inspection realized that it was, in fact, fake, then the dog has developed a conditioned response by learning with its smell and using multiple senses to further inspect future food triggers offered to it (the dog). With regard to measurement, Pavlov never had enough data.
The experiment showed that once the dogs became accustomed to hearing a particular noise at mealtime, they began to salivate automatically whenever they heard it. The dogs would salivate when they heard the noise whether they were given food or not. This experiment showed that behaviors are reactions to stimuli. This theory also relies on the belief that positive and negative reinforcement can be used to train people and animals to behave a certain way. Behaviorists seek to discover how environmental stimuli control behavior.