There are two key terms to Skinner’s ‘operant conditioning’ approach these are, negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is strengthening behaviour by removing an unpleasant stimulus. Many people get confused between a negative reinforcement with a ‘punishment’. Reinforcement and a ‘punishment’ are two different things. This is because reinforcement is done so that the behaviour occurs more, but punishments are given to decrease certain behaviour.
“In the mind of the behaviourist, persons are nothing more than simple mediators between behaviour and the environment (Skinner, 1993, p 428). There are two major types of conditioning: 1.Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioural training in which a naturally occurring
In Ruby Paynes opinion, teachers can change a low income students life just by establishing mutual respect. The teacher needs to care about the student and be sure to give the student the necessary skills to advance throughout life. This is somewhat like one of the education theories, symbolic interactionist theory. Symbolic interactionists limit their analysis of education to what they directly observe happening in the classroom. They focus on how teacher expectations influence student performance, perceptions, and attitudes.
It mainly involved two types of learning, namely Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning. These theories were inspired by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990), respectively. Classical conditioning involves the learning of association of an unconditional stimulus (which brings about an unconditional response) with a neutral stimulus to emerge with the same unconditional response. Once association has been established the neutral stimulus is now known as a ‘conditional stimulus’ and the response becomes a ‘conditional response’. Pavlov landed upon this theory by mistake whilst carrying out a different unrelated experiment with dogs.
• Next, describe classical conditioning. Explain the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Then discuss systematic desensitization, which is a strategy based on classical conditioning. How does it work? Why it is a good strategy to use to address phobias?
Perspectives | Theorists | Key aspects | | Social learning theory | Albert Bandura | In this theory, we learn from other people for example family, friends and teachers. People learn from role models. Role models are very important in this theory because. The fact that we learned new behaviour from others show that we have different views of people. If we observe person we will adapt their behaviour if they behave in certain way.
Outline and evaluate one or more social psychological theories of aggression? The social learning theory suggests that children learn aggressive behaviour from other significant individuals acting aggressively. A way in which children learn is called vicarious reinforcement and it’s when someone is rewarded for being aggressive. As a result they also act aggressively when reward follows however they will also learn not to act aggressively when punishment will be a consequence of their actions. In order for social learning to take place, the child must form a metal representation of the behaviour he/she observed.
Next is the social cognitive theory, created by Albert Bandura. The cognitive social theory is the belief that people are flexible enough to learn from behaviors, people can regulate their own lives, people can control the nature and quality of their own lives, people can control their own behavior through external and internal factors, and when people are morally misunderstood they try to blame someone else or not take responsibility for the action or behavior (Feist & Feist, p. 478). The final theory is the cognitive social learning theory by Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel. Their theory is the belief that cognitive factors influence the way people respond to environmental forces (Feist & Feist, p.
His experiment was called “Skinners Box” Skinners focus was based on reinforcement and this can be a positive outcome or it is a behaviour to avoid any negative consequences. This theory was built as a result of Pavlov’s experiment, where he thought that any bad behaviour would be punished and then it would eventually die. Operant conditioning can be described as a process which attempts to modify and behaviour through positive or negative reinforcement. By doing this Skinner believed that an individual makes an association between behaviour and a consequence. An example of this could be the teacher rewarding the class with a marble whenever they do something positive.
Outline some of the ways in which the labelling process may lead to educational under-achievement for some pupils. Labelling is a body of sociological theory which examines how the identity and behaviour of individuals is shaped by their categories by significant social others. Self-fulfilling prophecy. Self-fulfilling prophecy is when a teacher labels pupil on the basis of this label means they make predictions about them. Then, it means the teacher treats the pupil accordingly acting as if the predications are already true.