Classical Conditioning The classical conditioning approach is an associative learning approach that played a major role in the development of the science of psychology. Classical conditioning can also be referred to as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning. The following paper is designed to explain the theory of classical conditioning. A scenario will be provided that will apply the classical conditioning theory. The scenario will be explained and a chart will be complied that will demonstrate how classical conditioning applies to this scenario.
His experiment was called “Skinners Box” Skinners focus was based on reinforcement and this can be a positive outcome or it is a behaviour to avoid any negative consequences. This theory was built as a result of Pavlov’s experiment, where he thought that any bad behaviour would be punished and then it would eventually die. Operant conditioning can be described as a process which attempts to modify and behaviour through positive or negative reinforcement. By doing this Skinner believed that an individual makes an association between behaviour and a consequence. An example of this could be the teacher rewarding the class with a marble whenever they do something positive.
He measured the amount they salivated when they were given food, yet, he realised that they didn’t have to be given food for them to being salivating as soon as they realised that they were going to be given food. Pavlov soon realised that the dogs had learnt to associate the sound of the experimenters step with receiving food; this process was identified as classical conditioning. B.F. Skinner looked at Operant conditioning; Skinner experimented
It mainly involved two types of learning, namely Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning. These theories were inspired by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990), respectively. Classical conditioning involves the learning of association of an unconditional stimulus (which brings about an unconditional response) with a neutral stimulus to emerge with the same unconditional response. Once association has been established the neutral stimulus is now known as a ‘conditional stimulus’ and the response becomes a ‘conditional response’. Pavlov landed upon this theory by mistake whilst carrying out a different unrelated experiment with dogs.
Now that classical conditioning had taken place the dogs would salivate at the sound of the bell which was now the conditioned stimulus . [pic] I agree with Invan Pavlov theory because I think that you can control your response and behaviour towards things. http://peoplelearn.homestead.com/BEduc/Chapter_4.pdf http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100517172300.htm http://psychology.about.com/od/classicalconditioning/a/pavlovs-dogs.htm B.F Skinner’s ( Burhus Frederick [pic] Another type of learning was shown in operant conditioning or reinforcement.This type of learning was introduced by B.F Skinner’s ( Burrhus Frederick Skinner) He was famous for inventing the skinner
Two important learning theories proposed by the behaviourist approach are operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Classical conditioning you learn to associate two stimuli when they occur together, such that the response originally generated by one stimulus which is transferred to another. The person learns to produce an existing response to a new stimulus. For example, Little Albert (Watson & Rayner1920) was conditioned to respond with anxiety to the stimulus of a white rat. This was achieved by pairing the rat with a loud noise that already made Albert anxious.
Explain how Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner contributed to the study of learning and conditioning. To understand the relationship that classical and operant condition has you must first understand what they are to see how they work together. Classical conditioning is the processes that take creating an association between what is going on within ones environment. This includes items that are found naturally as stimulus and something that can be considered neutral. The most famous example of this is thanks to Ivan Pavlov.
Behaviourists focus on two key concepts – classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning associations between events that occur in the environment. This can be best shown in a diagram: UCS (unconditioned stimulus) → UCR (unconditioned response) UCS (unconditioned stimulus) + NS (neutral stimulus) → UCR (unconditioned response) CS (conditioned stimulus) → CR (conditioned response) Pavlov demonstrated this by showing that dogs have a reflex response which means they salivate (UCR) to food (UCS). When a neutral stimulus (e.g., a bell) is repeatedly associated with the unconditioned stimulus (food), dogs learn to salivate (CR) simply at the ringing of a bell (CS). Operant conditioning is learning due to the consequences of behaviour.
The rat became conditioned to press the lever. This would be a case of positive reinforcement since something was added to increase behavior. The box also contained floor bars that could stream electrical currents that would administer a mild shock. This conditioned the rat to avoid the lever. This would be a case of negative reinforcement since the shock was taken away to decrease behavior (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009).