Unit 8 Health and Social Care Essay

2059 WordsMay 18, 20159 Pages
P1: Explain the principle psychological perspectives Behaviourist: All about the behaviour being learnt * Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov): This theory was introduced by Ivan Pavlov a Russian Psychologist in 1920. The experiment in which Pavlov designed was called Pavlov’s Dog. During this animal study, Ivan researched the digestive system of dogs. He discovered that the dog would salivate before the delivery of food. He tried presenting a number of different objects in front of the dog and eventually discovered that it would salivate when every object was presented and named this response as a conditional reflex. Pavlov also discovered that these types of reflexes would originate from the cerebral cortex of the brain. (This is shown in the image to the right) * Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner): This is another behaviourist theory which was introduced by Burrhus.F. Skinner in 1930. His experiment was called “Skinners Box” Skinners focus was based on reinforcement and this can be a positive outcome or it is a behaviour to avoid any negative consequences. This theory was built as a result of Pavlov’s experiment, where he thought that any bad behaviour would be punished and then it would eventually die. Operant conditioning can be described as a process which attempts to modify and behaviour through positive or negative reinforcement. By doing this Skinner believed that an individual makes an association between behaviour and a consequence. An example of this could be the teacher rewarding the class with a marble whenever they do something positive. The marble acting as 10 minutes of free time to give them the choice to do what they would like, but punishing them and removing two marbles for every negative thing they do. This acts as an incentive to behave well. The diagram to the right shows Skinners Box where the rat knows if they push the lever
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