Behaviourists explain maladaptive behaviour in terms of the learning principles that sustain and maintain it. Discuss this statement and show how a behaviourists approach to therapy is in stark contrast to psychoanalytic one. INTRODUCTION Behavioural psychology, also known as behaviourism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviours are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. According to behaviourism, behaviour can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental processes.
Negative reinforcement has it’s strengths as it may enhance learning if used properly and appropriately. This can be done by placing students in mildly unpleasant situations so they can ‘escape’ when their behaviour improves (Kern & Clemens, 2007). There are several rules to follow for negative reinforcement to be effective. Describe the desired change in a positive way. Don’t bluff.
Why it is a good strategy to use to address phobias? Classical conditioning is a learning method that happens when two stimuli are continually paired; a response that is at first triggered by the second stimulus is eventually triggered by the first stimulus only. Operant conditioning is a behavioral theory based on the effects of consequences on behavior. They only affect future behavior. It also selects any behavior and it occurs automatically (Cooper et al, 2007).
The behaviourist psychologist says that all human behaviour is learnt from experience. The first scientist that I am going to be looking at is Skinner. Skinner looks at operant conditioning. Operant conditioning focuses on whether your behaviour is voluntary or involuntary. There are two key terms to Skinner’s ‘operant conditioning’ approach these are, negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement.
They believed that behaviour is learned through our environment through operant or classical conditioning and that behaviour is just a response to a stimulus. Operant conditioning is a learning method to change behaviour through reinforcement to produce the desired response. Classical conditioning requires a stimulus to trigger a response by pairing with an unconditional stimulus. Skinner and Harlow’s aims were to look into the understanding of the different influences on human behaviour. Skinner was interested in the behaviourist way of observing and measuring behaviour.
MI: Assess different psychological approaches to study. The behaviourist approach This approach focuses only on behaviour that can be observed and manipulated therefore, it is very useful in experiments where behaviour can be observed and manipulated especially in relation to independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV). The behaviourist approach is based on the concept of explaining behaviour through observation and the belief that the environment is the reason why people behave differently. According to B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) the operant conditioning involves two types of reinforcement which can be strength because positive reinforcement happens when the consequences following a particular behaviour is experienced as desirable and the individual is rewarded; this will be an encouragement for the person to continue or even do more because of the reward they are looking forward to. In negative reinforcement, the person realise the consequence of what had happened that caused them to be punished and because of this, the individual will be afraid of putting up the behaviour that caused the punishment.
The Role of Awareness in Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning, a type of leaning such that the pairing of a neutral stimulus and a natural one brings about response, is a subject of debate. Key among the topics of debate is the role of awareness especially as it relates to classical conditioning. Those who argue against the ideas of classical conditioning, on one hand, opine that the ‘‘presence of awareness violates the conditioning model's ontological premises, and, on the other, that the presence of subject awareness implies the likelihood that putative conditioning effects are actually attributable to demand artifacts,’’ (Shimp, 1991, p. 1). It is with this in mind that this paper set to analyze the role of awareness in classical conditioning. There is no denying the fact that there are people who have responsive behaviors that are relatively reflective or automatic.
Unit 201 – Child and Young Person Development Outcome 1 – Know the main stages of child and young person development 1.2 Different aspects of development can affect one another in several different ways; some examples are: • If a child has a physical disability, this obviously slows down their physical development. But it can also affect their social development as they may not be able to join in with activities their classmates are participating in. Also, in school they might have to stay in a specific place with staff, meaning they cannot go out and socialise at break times etc. • A child may have extreme difficulty retaining information, which affects mental development and impacts on her ability to communicate. The child may get upset or distressed by this – affecting her emotional development.
Time-outs can be effective, particularly with small children, when they are applied appropriately. However, if time-outs are misused, then they might lead to feelings of abandonment and unworthiness, blind obedience, and a lack of self-control. Moreover, according to the class notes, children are curious and have a drive to learn, and learning is intrinsically rewarding for them. In order to facilitate this learning and avoid punishment, we should try to create conditions that impede unwanted behaviors. It is important to note that if children feel that they are being manipulated or controlled by the rewards, their behavior will likely not change effectively.
UGC NET - PSYCHOLOGY PAPER II – UNIT 2 Instrumental Learning Operant conditioning - Introducation • Other names: instrumental learning or instrumental conditioning. • It is the study of how behavior is affected by its consequences. • Defn: Operant conditioning explains how voluntary responses are strengthened or weakened depending on positive or negative consequences. • In classical conditioning the original behavior is a natural biological response. • On the contrary, operant conditioning is applied on the behaviors that are voluntary.