Ps 360 Unit 3 Discussion Question

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• For the first part of the Discussion, define negative reinforcement in 1–2 sentences, and give an example of how negative reinforcement principles can be used to increase a desired behavior. A negative reinforcement contingency is one in which the occurrence of a response produces the removal, termination, reduction, or postponement of a stimulus, which leads to an increase in the future occurrence of that response. In other words, negative reinforcement includes strengthening a behavior through the elimination of a stimulus which results in an increase for that behavior to occur (Cooper et al, 2007). An example of how negative reinforcement principles can be used to increase a desired behavior is how a person leaves their house earlier than normal on a Friday morning in an effort to avoid getting stuck in traffic and being late for their job, class, etc. • Next, describe classical conditioning. Explain the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Then discuss systematic desensitization, which is a strategy based on classical conditioning. How does it work? Why it is a good strategy to use to address phobias? Classical conditioning is a learning method that happens when two stimuli are continually paired; a response that is at first triggered by the second stimulus is eventually triggered by the first stimulus only. Operant conditioning is a behavioral theory based on the effects of consequences on behavior. They only affect future behavior. It also selects any behavior and it occurs automatically (Cooper et al, 2007). Systematic desensitization is a procedure developed by Joseph Wolpe (1958, 1961, 1990) in which the person with a phobia practices relaxation while imagining scenes of the fear-producing stimulus. The advantage of systematic desensitization is that it is easier and more convenient for the client to
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