This paper will discuss exactly what phobias and addictions are, and how they are related to classical and operant conditioning. The reader will learn that phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties which learning theorists can account for. In this paper the writer will explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning, also how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. Before the end of the paper the reader will be able to clearly distinguish between phobias and addictions, and also explain what extinction means and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning. Phobias, classical conditioning and operant conditioning Classical conditioning is a process of behavior responds in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response (Hall, 1998).
Instrumental Conditioning Paper Clinton Alford PSYCH/550 – Psychology of Learning Dr. Greggus Yahr December 10, 2012 Instrumental Conditioning Paper Conditioning includes learning connection among a person and events that happen in his or her environment. Two significant theories of learning by conditioning are the following: Operant conditioning and Classical conditioning. Classical conditioning includes the coupling of an unconditioned stimulus with some neutral stimulus innately to produce a learning response (Bradizza & Stasiewkz, 2009). On the other hand, operant conditioning is a procedure of altering behaviors by either punishing or rewarding individuals in which an application is executed until the individual connect the action with distress or pleasure. In their research experiment, Capaldi and Martins (2010) employed a form of operant conditioning to demonstrate how people employed memory reinforcement to acquire particular rules.
In other words, behaviors are controlled by whatever follows the behavior. In relation to psychopathology, it is our operant behaviors that effect who we are and our environment around us. These are considered our consequences, which then react again back unto us as a result of our behaviors. The overall goal is to help the client make the necessary changes in their behavior which can then provide better meaning and coping skills for the future. As the clinician, you will assess the behavior of the client and then define the problem behaviorally.
Answer Freud Skinner Watson Piaget Add Question Here Question 53 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Negative reinforcement is: Answer when one eliminates an unwanted behavior by administering something bad. when one decreases an unwanted behavior by withholding something desired. when one increases a desired behavior by taking away something unpleasant. the same as punishment. Add Question Here Question 54 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Question Operant conditioning involves changing behavior as a result of: Answer innate processes.
Operant Conditioning and Relationships Renee King Psychology 1101 October 23, 2011 Applied behavioral analysis, also known as Behavior Modification, is a study of human behavior through observation (King, 2010). According to this analysis along with behaviorism it is believed that a persons’ behavior can be measured, trained, and changed (King, 2010). For instance, Operant Conditioning, which indicates that you can shape a person’s behavior by controlling the consequences of the behavior (King, 2010). The Consequences that accelerate the behavior are termed reinforcers where as those that hinder behavior are termed punishers. Through Operant Conditioning, you are able to mold the behavior of a person using reinforcements, punishments, and reinforcement schedules.
“Learning can be defined as the process leading to relatively permanent behavioural change or potential behavioural change. In other words, as we learn, we alter the way we perceive our environment, the way we interpret the incoming stimuli, and therefore the way we interact, or behave”. (Heffner, 2001) Individuals can learn in many different ways. One of the learning theories is called Classical Conditioning. This theory works through stimuli and responses.
Social learning theory (SLT) explains that aggression is learnt through observing aggressive behaviour and according to Bandura (19655); aggressive behaviour is learned through either directly or vicariously. Learning through direct experience can be described through the principle of operant conditioning where, for example, if an individual acts aggressively and therefore get what they want, and then this would in turn reinforce the action thus increasing the frequency it would occur in a similar situation. However, vicariously learning a behaviour would occur when an individual is exposed to aggressive behaviour, for example, through a role model for children which would lead to an imitation of the behaviour. Furthermore, the role of rewards on the imitation of aggressive behaviour is emphasised in this theory because it must be constantly reinforced and therefore appear rewarding for it to occur. There’s four factors which control the probability of aggressive behaviour: 1) Previous experiences of aggressive behaviour of the individual and of others 2) the degree of success of past aggressive behaviour 3) the likelihood of aggressive behaviour being rewarded or punished and 4) social, environmental and cognitive factors which would be operating simultaneously.
There are different treatments for dysfunctional behaviours with each treatment having both advantages and disadvantages. The treatments available for dysfunctional behaviours are Systematic Desensitisation (SD), Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Fluphenazine. SD is a behavioural treatment for dysfunctional behaviours such as phobias. SD is based on the principles of classical conditioning as phobias are learnt behaviours so the person with a phobia associates their fear with a pleasant stimulus to remove their conditioned fear. SD is a safe treatment to using medication which can have toxic side-effects or be addictive.
Faris Feroz Discuss One of the Psychological Approach to Treating Abnormality The behavioural approach to abnormality is that abnormal behaviour is the consequence of abnormal learning from the environment. They are learnt in the through classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning. Systematic desensitization is a technique based on the principals of classical conditioning and what is learnt (conditioned) can be unlearnt, through a step-by-step method. One of the most successful behavioural therapies is systematic desensitization. This therapy uses classical and operant conditioning to change the behaviour response to certain stimuli and is designed to reduce distressing levels of anxiety.
He believed that behavior can be trained, measured and changed. Behaviorism is also based on the idea that all behavior is conditioned. The two major types of conditioning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is when desired behavior is followed by positive reinforcement and negative by punishment. The famous experiment known as Little Albert by Watson and his student showed that classical conditioning can evoke an emotional response.