Learning Theory 3 The social learning theory is the behavior theory most significant to criminology. Albert Bandura alleged aggression is erudite through a curse of action called behavior modeling. He believed that individuals do not actually inherit violent tendencies, but they modeled them (Bandura & Ribes, 1976). Albert Bandura and other theorist argued that individuals, especially children, learn aggressive responses from observing others, either personally or through the media and environments (Bandura, 1976). He stated that many individuals believed that aggression will fabricate reinforcements.
Susan Scholz Both have important similarities and differences exist in Piagets and Vygetski’s descriptions of cognitive development. Both are widely accepted ideas that learners’ are actively constructing knowledge for themselves. Piaget thought that children learn primarily on their own and Vygetski thought knowledge was first socially constructed and then internalized by the individual. They both view social interaction important but differ on the role it plays with a learner. Piaget’s idea of social interaction is a mechanism for disrupting equilibrium, and as individuals must adapt their schemes though accommodation and assimilation then cognitive development happens.
It assumes that human problems come from operating on faulty, irrational beliefs. Some of these beliefs are conscious but many are not. Behavior Theory suggests that human actions are the results of what we have learned or been conditioned to do and that when these actions are reinforced consistently, by either reward or punishment, they become the basis of functioning in our lives. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy recognizes that thoughts and behaviors are connected and addresses both in its model. CBT is a problem-solving/task-centered approach which recognizes and challenges illogical and faulty beliefs in an effort to change negative or destructive behavior.
Behaviorist approach works very differently from biological approach in Health and Social care. There are many differences between the two and how they are used to aid people with many disorders. The behavioral approach assumes that all behavior is learn and that when we are born we are like a blank piece of paper. Behaviorists and social learning theorists are some of the examples of scientists and psychologists who believe in the nurture side of the debate. They believe that children can be molded and shaped by the environment through behavior modification, rewards and punishments.
The second being retention where the observer must remember what they have seen or learnt. The third is reproduction where the observer must be capable of doing the behaviour they have seen and finally motivation- the observer must have a reason to perform the new action. Psychologists abbreviate this to ‘ARRM’. For example a child may pay attention to an adult acting aggressively; the child would then retain this information so as to remember it. The child would now reproduce the behaviour which it is capable of doing so and finally the child must be motivated to perform the new action- in this case the child may look up to or idolise the adult.
Behavioral theories came from John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B.F. Skinner. John B. Watson argued that psychologists should examine only what they could see and determine if psychology was to be a science. Behaviorists think that everything can be learned. They found that the unconscious motives and drives that Freud described were difficult to verify to the scientific method. Behaviorists are also called “learning theorists” because they believe that all behavior is learned, step by step.
At first, it was behaviourists in psychology who noted that people learn through observing others around them. Later on, researchers such as Albert Bandura looked at how people interacted and used cognitive processes. He stated: ‘Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behaviour is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviours are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. (Bandura 1977: 22)’ It was discovered that aspects of this observational learning involved an individual serving or catering to a certain behaviour, remembering/memorising it and how it worked for another person and then the individual acting it out to see how it worked for them.
Psychologists are used to determine and contest against factors that facilitate learning for instance behaviorists say learning takes place as a result of punishment but the government have actually inserted a law that no child is allowed to be bitten up as form of punishment .with the support of cognitivists , they contest for this point saying punishment robs the learner of his or her dignity (Mwamwenda 2010) .behavioral psychologists believe that learning is to control the behavior of students to study hard and through rewards reinforcement and other stimulus . John Dewey advocates for be child centered learning ,experiences should be provided in accordance with the mental development of the learner. Dewey ()asserts that for learners to understand and to learn
For example, Skinnerian conditioning as a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). Motivation is a condition that energizes behavior and gives it direction. It is experienced subjectively as a conscious desire For example, the
The Thinking Chair gives constructive direction for a child’s mind, producing a ripple of empathy in consideration of the circumstance. This in turn becomes practice and helps to lay a foundation for behaving appropriately based on lasting internal reasons. In order for a child to learn to make better decisions about behavior, he certainly must be aware that there are consequences . He will like some of the consequences, but some consequences will make him uncomfortable, causing dissonance. He needs to experience these things,