Classical Conditioning The classical conditioning approach is an associative learning approach that played a major role in the development of the science of psychology. Classical conditioning can also be referred to as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning. The following paper is designed to explain the theory of classical conditioning. A scenario will be provided that will apply the classical conditioning theory. The scenario will be explained and a chart will be complied that will demonstrate how classical conditioning applies to this scenario.
The dogs were responding to the sight of the research assistants' white lab coats, which the animals had come to associate with the presentation of food. Unlike the salivary response to the presentation of food, which is an unconditioned reflex, salivating to the expectation of food is a conditioned reflex. An unconditioned stimulus like food causes pleasure when eaten, this is unconditioned response as it is not learnt. Caregivers provide food and subsequent pleasure for the infant. So their presence becomes associated with the
This theory had the concept of: •How the surrounding environment affected one’s behaviour through their response •Behaviourism is on learning. The cooperation between stimulus and response is how learning takes place •There is no fundamental difference between behaviour of humans and animals and that each of them learn through the stimulus-response method. Classical conditioning however is a principle where a stimulus which naturally does not incite a reaction or response in a person, is joined by another stimulus which does incite a reaction. They made an experiment linked to this on dogs. Generally dogs in response to a bowl of food salivated however they wanted to see if they could pair this with a bell ringing.
Classical conditioning is made using two stimuli. in the experiment Pavlov used sound of a bell a as a neutral stimuli and dog food as unconditioned stimuli which causes the dog to salivate. Pavlov presented the dogs with a ringing bell followed by food. The food elicited salivation, and after repeated bell-food pairings the bell also caused the dogs to salivate. In this experiment, the unconditioned stimulus is the dog food as it produces an unconditioned response, saliva.
He measured the amount they salivated when they were given food, yet, he realised that they didn’t have to be given food for them to being salivating as soon as they realised that they were going to be given food. Pavlov soon realised that the dogs had learnt to associate the sound of the experimenters step with receiving food; this process was identified as classical conditioning. B.F. Skinner looked at Operant conditioning; Skinner experimented
Explain how Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner contributed to the study of learning and conditioning. To understand the relationship that classical and operant condition has you must first understand what they are to see how they work together. Classical conditioning is the processes that take creating an association between what is going on within ones environment. This includes items that are found naturally as stimulus and something that can be considered neutral. The most famous example of this is thanks to Ivan Pavlov.
Beck’s cognitive therapy aims to change people’s |Building on the basic processes of learning, behavioral |Psychodynamic therapy seeks to bring unresolved past | |Approach |illogical thoughts about themselves and the world. |treatment approaches make this fundamental assumption: |conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious | | |However, cognitive therapy is considerably less |Both abnormal behavior and normal behavior are learned. |into the conscious, where patients may deal with the | | |confrontational and challenging than rational-emotive |People who act abnormally either have failed to learn the |problems more effectively. Psychodynamic approaches are | | |behavior therapy. Instead of the therapist’s actively |skills they need to cope with the problems of everyday |based on Freud’s psychoanalytic approach to personality, | | |arguing with clients about their dysfunctional cognitions,|living or have acquired faulty skills and patterns that |which holds that individuals employ defense mechanisms, | | |cognitive therapists more often play the role of teacher.
This school of study ultimately depends on the methods of the case studies that are performed to provide the necessary information that will clearly show them the evidence based on motivations. The theory of psychodynamics will tell us that the researcher will be able to collect the correct information based on the subject’s willingness to reveal the truth about themselves in their everyday actions. The Behaviorist Perspective This school of study is also known as “behaviorism.” In this school of study behavior is observed and learned by the way it is shaped by the stimuli in our environment. This study
Running head: Personality Theories Personality Theories PSY/211 Personality Theories The existence of personality theories correspond to how scholars analyze and assess the development of human identity and behavior. Each viewpoint provides a specific understanding of what cultivates personality and the corresponding factors that influence such behavior. One way to analyze personality is through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. The main argument of this theory is that problems or issues pertaining to psychology can be rooted to one’s unconscious (McLeod, 2007). Specifically, the problems are influenced by latent issues surfacing in the conscious mind.
Carl Rogers states ‘ The organism has one basic tendency and striving- to actualize, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism’ (Rogers, 1951, p487). But for a person to be able to grow and self- actualise they need to be in an environment that provides them with congruence, unconditional positive regard and empathy. The Psychodynamic Theory works with feelings that are in the unconscious mind, the subconscious and it is about going back into the clients past and understanding the causes of their beliefs, ways they then behave, thoughts and feelings. People throughout their lives may build up shields to mask these painful feelings, but they still will affect the way the person is as they are often hard to face. These shields are demonstrated in behaviour.