Account for the successes and failures of democracy in Germany in the period 1918–1933 The democracy in Germany from 1918 to 1933, the Weimer Republic, is considered as both successful and unsuccessful. The democracy system in Germany was chaotic when it first emerged, but it became relatively stable until it collapsed during the great depression in 1929 and was then taken over by Nazism. Democracy refers to a form of government that is controlled by people and was a condition under the Treaty of Versailles. The success of democracy can be seen through the establishment of the bills of rights and mainly through the Stresemann era. - It was a provisional government formed due to the abdication of the Kaiser.
Germany in 1914 was a growing Parliamentary democracy rather that an entrenched autocracy. How far do you agree with this view? Leading up to 1914 Germany, in the Second Reich, could be considered an autocracy because of the way Bismarck had left the Reichstag the Kaiser had a great deal of power that the German people had very little say on. However, I believe it would be very harsh to label the autocracy as entrenched as there was a constitutional crisis and this shed light on the fact that the Kaiser’s power was not absolute. Also, events such as the Hottentot election of 1907 and the Daily Telegraph affair were examples of when the Kaiser had to work and deal with the democratic sides of the constitution.
He was petty, vindictive and ruthless in his treatment of those who stood in his way. No other German exerted so profound an influence on German history in the 19th century. When he came to power Germany was a collection of states; when he left office Germany was a united nation feared and respected by the Great Powers. He undoubtedly committed many blunders especially in his handling of the Church and the working class and his defense of the interests of the Junker class. Yet on the other hand he helped to promote the modernization of Germany and was responsible for a social welfare system, which gave working people some limited stake in the survival of the Empire.
Analyze the ways in which national and cultural i.d. in Alsace-Lorraine were perceived and promoted during the period from 1870-1919. The Alsace-Lorraine was a region that has been inhabited by both French and German people. Because of the switching in authority of this area between Germany and France, the people of the Alsace-Lorraine have a very unique culture that includes in part French and German characteristics. When the Alsace-Lorraine was ceded to Germany in 1871, the French culture was suppressed causing unease within the Alsatian people; yet once the Alsace-Lorraine became part of France yet again with the ending of WWI, the German traditions remained as well.
The Weimar Government, whilst built in opposition to the wartime ideologies, was unable to detach itself from the power of the German military between the years of 1919 and 1934. The Weimar Republic was formed in 1919 after the abdication and exile of Kaiser Wilhelm II left the country leaderless and the Reichstag switched from imperial politics to democratic politics, a form which the German army famously did not support. As such the impact of the German Army upon the Weimar Republic was largely to support their own political – generally right-wing – agendas. This can be directly linked to the interference of military groups and military groups in the political sphere of Weimar Germany. The involvement of the German Army and other military groups in Weimar politics served to strengthen the Republic in the early years but later lead to its downfall.
including the strengthening of the Prussian economy due to economic reforms and the Zollverein between 1815 and 1848, and the continued growth after this period with army and financial reforms. As well as the three wars against Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) and France (1870-71). The founding reasons behind why German was unified under Prussia and not under Austria can be found in the years leading up to 1818, where the 39 states of the Confederation all managed their own economies. The states used customs duties as a way to protect their own economy from the surrounding states, restricting the development of commercial trading between states. Finally in 1818, Prussia abandoned its domestic tariff system and due to the success as a result of the abandonment other German states followed the example of Prussia.
The industrial revolution introduced mass production and greater markets. The world was slowly transpiring into a global village, with all the new machinery and technology being produced. Ultimately, the industrial revolution was a turning point in history that paved the way for technological, scientific, and cultural advancements. However, with all these advancements, there are negative consequences to be faced. This can be demonstrated through the examination of urbanization, the rise of new classes, theories (by Smith, Malthus and Ricardo), and factory conditions.
In a way Expressionist artists strived to be a voice for the people within that society. Expressionism finds it roots in Germany in the run up to World War I. German Expressionism was a reaction to the Wilhelminian government that had taken control of a united Germany in 1914. Massive changes had taken place with the world moving towards Industrialisation and Mechanization. German Expressionist work was a rebellion against these ideas and from the bourgeois culture that had gripped pre-war Germany. German Expressionism dealt with Immediacy, influenced greatly by Nietzsche, whilst shunning the bourgeois art of the time.
Functionalism developed from the ideas of theories such as Emile Durkheim and Herbert Spencer, but had its roots traced as far back as the father of sociology, August Comte. Marxism however, suggests that society is characterized by inequality is responsible for conflict and social change. Marxism was coined by Karl Marx who work focused on the increasing industrialization and the economic system of capitalism and the implications on the society. These theories have little similarities, so much so they often contradict each other. One similarity is that both theories are macro theories and the focus on both theories studies the society as a whole in a large scale manner however they both view society as a whole in different lights.
Public expenditure and investments were increased in order to renew an industrial and business confidence in the economy. Also propaganda campaigns were set up to stimulate consumer demand - both of which increased production, thereby creating jobs. The public works scheme was extended (with the RAD), employing vast numbers of people to build houses, schools, roads and railways, including the huge new autobahn network this was all lead and introduced by Schacht. Tax concessions and special grants for some companies were introduced, and many businesses were given subsidies for employing more workers than they really needed. The Government also controlled the price of many goods, ensuring that smaller businesses were not forced out of the market.