The Effects of Healthy Family Systems and Childhood Development Danielle Whitebread HSCO 502- Liberty University Family systems are important in children’s growth and development for many reasons. Murray Bowen, John Bowlby and Erik Erickson’s theories of family systems, attachment and trust describe how family systems are important to a child’s physical, emotional, spiritual and social development. The family systems theory was originally introduced by Dr. Murray Bowen. Dr. Bowen’s theory was used more in the clinical setting as a therapy involving the entire family system. Bowen’s theory explained that instead of one being seen as an individual, they were a part of a larger group; a family system.
Describe and Evaluate One Theory of Attachment and Consider its Significance on Child Rearing Today Bowlby (1951) was influenced by ethological studies that suggested infants were "genetically programmed to form attachments to a single caregiver within a critical time period." The critical time period described is called the "sensitive period," it is a period of time in which something is likely to occur. He suggested that "mother love in infancy is as important for mental health as vitamins and proteins are for physical health." Bowlby focused on the mother as the attachment figure. Bowlby argued that attachment was an "evolved mechanism;" an innate response that ensured the survival of the child.
Attachment is a special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure. The roots of research on attachment began with Freud's theories about love, but another researcher is usually credited as the father of attachment theory. John Bowlby devoted extensive research to the concept of attachment, describing it as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194). Bowlby shared the psychoanalytic view that early experiences in childhood have an important influence on development and behaviour later in life. Our early attachment styles are established in childhood through the infant/caregiver relationship.
Running head: PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Social Development in Children Madige L. Campbell Liberty University Abstract Becoming a parent can carry an enormous deal of responsibility. Parents are given the task to nurture their children’s emotional and physical needs. Parents tend to develop an image of what they think their children will become. Parental involvement plays an important role in the development of children. Parents recognize that there are certain things that are needed, which are the basic needs, morals & values, education, and parental love.
Also this essay will discuss the impact on children and adults of disrupted attachment and separation. Bowlby’s theory of attachment is the idea that children form a two way attachment with their primary caregiver, and this relationship should be warm, intimate and continuous in order for the child to develop properly. Bowlby believed that the relationship between a mother or primary caregiver and their child was most crucial during the first 18 to 24 months of life and that is, was this time, which affected later socialisation. He also thought that there was a sensitive period in the first few years of life and if an attachment was not formed. In addition he suggested the idea of monotropy, which is the suggestion that infants tend to direct attachment behaviours towards a single attachment figure, and that there is one special bond and this is typically between a mother and its child.
Bowlby claimed that infants need one special attachment relationship that is qualatively different from all others. Lastly, the internal working model which is developed through the monotropic attachment. This model represents the infant’s knowledge about his/her relationship with the primary attachment figure, in other words, the mother. It generates expectations about other relationships, so whatever relationship the mother has formed with their child, whether she is kind and loving, or aggressive and uncaring, the child will develop and have this expectation in mind of all future relationships. For example, Hazan and Shaver (1987) showed that there is a link between early attachment experiences and later romantic relationships.
Introduction In this essay I am going to discuss the constructions and the implications for measuring and responding to childhood needs. The government policy aims to secure the wellbeing of children, protect them from all types of harm and ensure their developmental needs are appropriately meet. Social and health services have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children in their area who are in need and to promote the upbringing of such children. (Horwath 2001).The needs of a child cannot be met without considering the family and the world in which the child lives in. There is a framework based on an ecological model that provides a systematic way of analysing, understanding and recording what is happening to children and young people within their families and the wider context of the community in which they live.
He thereby revolutionised our thinking about a child’s tie to the mother and its disruption through separation, deprivation, and bereavement. Mary Ainsworth’s innovative methodology not only made it possible to test some of Bowlby’s ideas empirically but also helped expand the theory itself and is responsible for some of the new directions it is now taking. Ainsworth contributed the concept of the attachment figure as a secure base from which an infant can explore the world. In addition, she formulated the concept of maternal sensitivity to infant signals and its role in the development of infant-mother attachment patterns. His theories on attachment and on maternal deprivation have been some of the most influential writings on the topic.
In the essay, the rationale of child assessment will be delved into as well as factors that affect the assessment process. Developmental assessment is “A process designed to deepen understanding of a child’s competencies and resources, and of the care-giving and learning environments most likely to help a child make fullest use of his or her developmental potential. Assessment should be an on-going, collaborative process of systematic observation and analysis. This process involves formulating questions, gathering information, sharing observations, and making interpretations in order to form new questions” (Greenspan & Meisels, 1996, p11). The above quotation captures what developmental assessment encampuses.
Infant-Toddler Pedagogies Development and learning of young children have long been seen as critical life-long effecting factors within the human life. Researchers such as Bowlby (1951) proposed in his early arguments commenting on the importance of positive relationship between babies towards their parents and other caregivers, he argued that “without a positive attachment relationship on early years an individual’s capacity to forge satisfactory relationships and achieve good mental health in adulthood would be impaired” (Petrie, S. & Owen, S. 2005). Dr Emmi Pikler’s philosophy was one of the first approach that underlines many theorist proposal and taken it into practice. Throughout this essay we will focus on the key concepts, principals and philosophy of the Pikler Approach and briefly identify significant socio-political contexts that influenced on Dr Emmi Pikler’s life and her founding of the Lóczy Residential Nurseries. Following by arguments based on the possible impacts of these concepts being taken into practices in a New Zealand infant and toddler education and care centre.