Explain the principal psychological perspectives There are six psychological perspectives for health and social care, Behaviourist, Social learning, psychodynamic, Humanistic, Cognitive and Biological. In this booklet I will explain the principles of each perspective. Biological This theory underpins the key notion that our genes make us who are we; it also centres on a theory called ‘Maturation theory’ which suggest that out behaviour is biological and not environmental. They believe that genes are forwarded to individuals from their parents and that cognitive, physical and other development processes unfold over time depending on the genes and individual has rather than the environment they live in. The ‘Maturation theory’ believes development happens as a sequenced process, also stating that genes help is develop into the person we are meant to be.
Color of eyes, straight or curly hair, pigmentation of the skin and certain diseases are all a function of the genes we inherit. Other physical characteristics, if not determined, appear to be at least strongly influenced by the genetic make-up of our biological parents. Those who adopt an extreme heredity position are known as nativists. Their basic assumption is that the characteristics of the human species as a whole are a product of evolution, and that individual differences are due to each person’s unique genetic code. Characteristics and differences that are not observable at birth, but which emerge later in life, are regarded as the product of maturation.
This rationalization made Mendel understand that the offspring gets their traits and information from both parents. As Mendel continued to experiment with different generations and characteristics, he found sometimes one parent's traits would dominate and physically manifest and sometimes the other's traits would dominate. Other times the traits would combine. He found that certain traits always dominated. This led to the general discovery of phenotypes based on genotypes.
Examine one evolutionary explanation of behavior Before we had the technology to look at genes specifically, a theory was used to explain how we’ve adapted the traits we have today. Darwin’s theory was that those who adapt best to an environment will have a greater chance of surviving, having offspring, and passing their genes to their offspring. As our environment is always changing, we need to adapt our characteristics to survive in that specific environment. It is the whole aspect of adaptation. It is said that those who are better suited for a certain environment will be more like to breed and pass on these genes also known as natural selection.
Outline and evaluate two explanations of attachment (12) An attachment is a bond between two people especially mother and infant. It keeps a physical closeness between the mother and her child and also promotes a healthy environment. Bowlby's Evolutionary Theory of attachments is that the infant bonds with one special attachment figure who is usually the mother because she is special and unique in attachment. The bond with the mother is special because it is different from all other bonds the child makes, this is called monotropy. Bowlby believed that attachment behaviour was innate and had been passed down through evolution for the survival of the infant.
M1 – the nature – nurture debate Philosophers and theorist have argued that it is the way we are born to be the way we are. Whereas other theorists have argued that it is the way we are brought up and influenced by our surroundings that makes us the way we are. The way we look can be argued to be mainly due to nature, the genes we inherit from our parents makes us look the way we do. For example, when people say “don’t you look like your mother/father” Genetic inheritance can determine our eye colour, whether we have curly or straight hair or how tall we will be. We also can inherit certain disease which can have an impact on our health.
Or could it be because of the environment we are brought up into. The nature nurture debate is very much involved when discussing learning and evolutional attachment theories. The evolutionary approach explains behaviour as a result of nature whereas the behaviourist approach would state that infants are born with blank slates and everything is dependent on what they learn. I am going to evaluate Bowlby believed that humans are innately programmed with a mechanism for attachment. Bowlby’s theory is an evolutionary approach to attachment.
As the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and paediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two. It may also occur as a result of human nature and our ability to learn from our environment.
Attachment can be described using two theories, one being Bowlby’s attachment theory which is based on an evolutionary perspective. The theory suggests that evolution has produced a behaviour that is essential to survival. An infant that keeps close to their mother is more likely to survive. The traits that lead to that attachment will be naturally selected. Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment.
Johnson, Taylor Eng 12 S. Loftin 1-19-10 Like Mother Like Son Many studies have been proven that while a human fetus is being developed, the embryo is coded with genetic information, called DNA, with traits from both the mother and father. The inheritance of each trait is determined by factors that are passed on to decedents. When born these traits spontaneously take form. For example the child can inherit eye color, height, and even personality traits from his parents. Just as heredity is formed in society today, that same effect takes place in the epic poem Beowulf.