Cultural deprivation sociologists see three factors as accountable for working-class under-achievement. One such factor being the lack of intellectual stimulation. Working class families are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities that will stimulate their thinking and reasoning skills, and less likely to read them. This effects their intellectual development so that when they begin school they are at a disadvantage compared with middle-class children. Another factor responsible for working-class under-achievement is the restricted speech code.
Explainining class differences in achievement Cultural deprivation theory blames the failings of the child on his/her background. This diverts the attention from the educational system which may contribute to, or account for, class differences in attainment. Cultural deprivation theorists argue that many working-class homes lack the books, educational toys and activities that would stimulate a child’s intellectual development. Bernstein and Young (1967) found that the way mothers think about and choose toys has an influence on their child’s intellectual development. Middle-class mothers are more likely to have more of an interest in their child’s intellectual development.
In a poor socioeconomic group, students are more likely to drop out of school; this happens since the environment around them does not allow them to achieve an academic goal or have parents who support them. The government should implement more programs to help in the contribution for poor families. With poverty, children can experience stress or depression, hence, not obtaining a career.
Sociology Essay Some theorists think that cultural deprivation is the reason why working class children fail and middle class children succeed. To succeed in education you will need cultural equipment (language, self-discipline and reasoning skills) something that the working class children lack. They lack this equipment because their parents cannot socialise properly with their children, so these children grow up culturally deprived leading to their under-achievement at school. Whereas middle class children have parents who can socialise properly with them, giving them all the cultural equipment they need. Intellectual development is one aspect to cultural deprivation.
Many EMGs are classed as working class families meaning social deprivation can often happen. The lack of money can often mean that families cannot afford the extra things which may aid their child in education. These are things could be as simple as books or stationary or not owning a computer, therefore having no access to the internet. As working class EMG families are on low incomes, children may not have the same experiences as working class children, missing out on holidays and trips to places such as museums and galleries. Many EMG children also do not have that initial push of how important education is for them.
Children with a lack of cultural capital are more likely to use the restricted code (limited vocabulary) which disadvantages them at school as they feel excluded and are therefore less successful. Working-class children typically use the restricted code. Bourdieu argues that cultural capital affects academic achievement as it ties in with educational capital. Middle-class children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the demands of the school curriculum.
Negative Effects of Low-SES Parenting Children are at a disadvantage when they are parented by individuals of low-socioeconomic status. Low-socioeconomic parents of today are preoccupied with what resources they lack such as food, clothing and shelter that they do not pay close enough attention to their children's academic and behavioral welfare. In a nationwide study of American kindergarten children, 36% of parents in the lowest-income quintile read to their children on a daily basis, compared with 62% of parents from the highest-income quintile (Coley, 2002).These hardships create stress for the parents and are in turn reflected in their parenting. Socially many of the children who are residents of a lower income area seem to be categorized as unfit for greater academic achievement. This pessimistic view on the abilities of low socioeconomic income youth continues to influence their lack of academic performance.
Causes of Failing in the educational system It is unfortunate that now in such an advance era, the educational system is not a strong point in society and continues to fail. Education is one of the most important steps in creating a life in this social age. There are several reasons the educational system could be failing in showing importance in a student’s life. Some of the main reasons believed to be for a failing educational system are: funding, accountability, and “one size fits all” curriculum teaching. To begin with, Funding for the educational system is greatly based on the local property taxes in the area of a public school, and is one major cause of failing public schools, due to unequal funding and lack in necessary instructive and learning tools.
He argues that this is due to working-class parents being less likely to support and encourage their child’s intellectual development at home, therefore they are intellectually deprived compared to the middle-class pupils they are at school with. Sociologists such as Douglas believe that working-class homes often lack the books, educational toys and activities that would stimulate a child’s intellectual development. Language is another factor that is believed to create a social class difference. Basil Bernstein (1975) identified a language difference between the middle-class and working-class. He said the working-class are more likely to use the ‘restricted code’ which include limited vocabulary and is based on the use of short and unfinished, grammatically simple sentences, whereas the middle-class are more likely to use the ‘elaborated code’ which includes a wider range of vocabulary and is based on longer and grammatically more complex sentences.
There are many different factors that cause social class differences in educational achievement. In this essay I will be discussing the cultural factors of poverty and material deprivation, cultural deprivation, family socialisation and factors within the school. Some sociologists argue that material factors and the home background of students affect the attainment of students. They believe to due to the lack of income from working class parents, the students don’t receive a proper diet with vitamins, meaning they lack concentration. Also they will have a weaker immune system causing them to miss school due to illness.