On the other hand, Gilbon recognises the processes committed in school which create the ethnic differences in attainment, he found that Afro-Caribbean boys were often labelled “unruly” “disrespectful”, they were also more likely to be given detentions than other pupils. This was because teachers misinterpreted their dress and manner of speech as a challenge to their authority. These actions lead these boys to have a self fulfilling prophecy which results in them
Many sociologists argue that ethnic differences in achievement can best be explained by looking at factors outside the school- in the home, family and culture of the child and the impact of wider society. The main explanations of this kind are: cultural deprivation, material deprivation and class, racism in wider society. Cultural deprivation theory sees the under achievement of some ethnic groups as the result of inadequate socialisation in the home. The explanation has three main aspects: intellectual and linguistic skills, attitudes and values and family structure. Cultural deprivation theorists see the lack of intellectual and linguistic skills as a major cause of underachievement for many minority children.
Asses sociological explanations for the ethic differences in educational attainment (12 marks) Some sociologists argue that some ethnic groups maybe underachieving in the education system whereas some are achieving highly, a big part of this is down to material and cultural deprivation, however there are other factors that effect it as well. Material factors may affect ethnic groups in the education system, material deprivation explanations see educational failure as results from factors such as poor/overcrowded housing, 15% of minority groups live in overcrowded homes, and low income. Multiracial people are more likely to face these problems according to Flaherty, he stated that Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are 3x more likely than whites to be in the poorest 1/5 of the population and unemployment is three times higher for African and Bangladeshi/Pakistani people than for whites, this means that ethnic groups as stated, are deprived of equpiment needed for schooling or even outside of school will have no help or extra tuition leading to poor results and underachievement.
When we compare pupils of the same social class but different ethnic origins, still find differences in achievement. This is particularly the case for black children, since even middle class black pupils do comparatively poorly at gsces. Cultural factors may affect some ethnic groups in educational achievement. In some asian households, English in not the main language. In some west indian households creole or patois are spoken.
Asses the View That Culture Deprivation Is the Main Cause of underachievement amongst working class students. It may be argued that due to lack of family structure and social, a child is more likely to underachieve. There are many cultural deficiencies often associated with a child's potential and achievement. Cultural deprivation is a theory that many working-class children are inadequately socialised and therefore lack the "right" culture appropriate for a successful education. Working class children are less likely to succeed because they are less likely to be found in nursery schools, less likely to go to university and more likely to be poor readers when they start school, more likely to be in lower sets and streams in secondary school, more likely to leave school early, more likely to underachieve at GCSEs and a level, more likely to be excluded and suspended .This is because the middle-class culture children are adequately prepared for school, but it's totally reverse for working-class culture, it basically fails to prepare children adequately for educational success.
However white working class suggests that the cause of education underachievement is a mixture of culture and class. The reasons for ethnic differences can be internal or external factors which are things such as cultural deprivation, material deprivation and racism theorists argue that underachievement these may then result to inadequate socialisation in the home. One major factor being the lack of intellectual and linguistic skills being taught to children, in addition children in ethnic minorities are less likely to take part in activities that are intellectually enriching due to material deprivation, leaving these students poorly equipped for school. In addition the language spoken by ethnic minority families tend to be inadequate for educational success as English may not be the child’s first language and so they may struggle more than white British children. However some sociologists argue that Asian and Indian children do just as well if not better than white middle class students despite not speaking English at home.
A large amount of instructive and mental research has time after time established that African American students underperform academically compared to White students. For example, they tend to receive lower grades in school, score lower on the same tests of academic ability, drop out at elevated rates, and graduate from college with significantly lower grades than White students. Such performance space can be identified for several reasons, such as financial status, or educational training. However Claude M. Steele explains that even when background issues are held steady, later success remains lower for minority students. The member of any stereotyped group must deal with the possibility of being judge of doing something that will confirm
Outline some of the ways in which cultural deprivation may lead to the educational underachievement of working class pupils (12 marks) Cultural deprivation is the idea that the culture of low income groups is deprived or deficient in certain aspects which accounts for low educational achievement. Educational underachievement is when pupils fail to reach their full potential and meet their aspired grades. This essay will outline some of the ways in which cultural deprivation can lead to the educational underachievement of working class pupils. One way in which cultural deprivation may lead to educational underachievement is due to the lack of intellectual stimulation that working class parents have on their children. It has been found that working class parents are less likely to give their children educational toys or read to them.
Indeed, these influences most dramatically affect low-income students and students of color; [Psychologist Claude] Steele has found that African-American students, specifically, perform significantly below their potential on tests in which they know they are being assessed on their intellectual performance, largely due to what he calls "stereotype threats," a historical and well supported fear that tests created by the dominant culture will judge them to be "wanting" (French, 2003). For example, African-American students were unengaged in the attitudes and behaviors that lead to school success because, to them, accepting the school curriculum, language, and pedagogy would mean rejecting their collective identity (Flaxman,
The opposite is also true. When there is sturdy job growth in the country, the black poverty rate still declines. African Americans are set at a disadvantage when having to find a job because they are competing with whites. Part of the reason that African Americans are not given the same opportunity as whites is because of the dissimilarity in education between the two races. Massey and Denton mentioned in reading that high levels of segregation contribute to unequal schooling, therefore African American children are more likely to attend a school that is mediocre to other schools with fewer recourses for learning.