In turn, black pupils felt teachers underestimated their ability and picked on them. Gilborn and Youdell conclude that much of the conflict between white teachers and black pupils stem from the racial stereotypes that teachers hold, rather than the pupil’s actual behaviour. This disadvantages pupils because they are treated differently, which could result in their failure and even exclusion from school. As Jenny Bourne 1994) found that schools tend to see black boys as a threat and label them
When looking at ethnic differences in achievement, sociologists often focus on the labels teachers give to children from different ethnic backgrounds. Their studies show that teachers often see Asian and black pupils as being far from the “perfect pupil.” Instead, they often label black children as disruptive and Asian children as passive. Negative labels may lead teachers to treat ethnic minority pupils differently, which often disadvantages them and results in failure in education. David Gilborn (1990) found teachers were quick to discipline black students, seeing them as a threat to their authority and safety. Teachers often misinterpreted their behaviour as threatening when no threat was intended.
Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found that teachers expected black pupils to present more discipline problems and misinterpreted their behaviour as threatening or as a challenge to authority. When teachers acted on this misperception, pupils would respond negatively leading to further conflict. Black pupils felt that the teachers underestimated their ability and picked on them. Therefore, according to Gillborn and Youdell much of the conflict between white teachers and black pupils
Fundamentally, one factor which contributes to the ethnic differences within the school place is due to the labeling theory. This is when a particular definition is attached to a student such as ‘smart’ or ‘stupid’ this often leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy as the student begins to believe the label they have been branded as and therefore begins to act upon it. Some sociologists have focused on how black pupils are labeled negatively which has a direct impact on their education. Gillborn & Youdell (2000) found that black pupils were more likely to receive discipline from their teacher although fellow classmates may have been acting in a similar way. This leads to further problems as conflict begins to emerge between teachers and pupils as black pupils are seen as anti-authority due to the misinterpretation of behaviour black boys especially, are labelled negatively leading exclusions which affect their educational attainment as missing lessons means that their knowledge is being limited.
Racial micro-aggressions have an accumulative and harmful impact on people of color invalidating them as racial/cultural beings, undermining their spiritual and mental capacity, imposing a false reality on them. World views of racism seem to be very similar across cultures; although, governments are implementing programs in schools to educate the young generations, still not enough. The historical background of
Discrimination Written Assignment Discrimination is treatment or consideration of or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit. While watching a Class Divided I learned a lot. Jane Elliott divided her class by the color of their eyes, marked them with armbands and proceeded to treat one group as if it was better than the other. The superior students performed better than they ever had before, while the inferior students' performance dropped. The next day, the third graders traded ranks and their performance reversed in accordance to their group status.
For example, Troyna and Williams suggest that the British curriculum is ethnocentric because it prioritises white culture and therefore is a prime example of institutional racism. Stephen Ball goes further by criticising the national curriculum as he suggests that it ignores cultural/ethnic diversity as it promotes ‘little Englandism.’ This according to Bernard Coard creates an inferior image of black people and leads to low self esteem and failure. Although this could explain reasons for ethnic differences in achievement outside of the home background, it isn’t clear how much of an impact it has. This is because, even though it may ignore cultures like Chinese, their achievement levels are higher than the national average and therefore the curriculum cannot be that significant. Also, even with post modern society placing more emphasis on multi culturalism, the differences in achievement still remain.
Assumptions about groups even though they are considered to be positive are just as damaging as making a negative stereotype. Perpetuating positive stereotypes is unacceptable because they put pressure on those targeted, can make them cocky, and categorizes those that are being stereotyped. Positive stereotypes can put those targeted under unnecessary pressure. It is usually generalized that Asians excel in school, but mostly math. However, if an Asian student is not so good in math, he could be pressured by society and his family to try to fulfill the stereotype.
Behaviourists want results, by which they can check measure and observe on the stimulus and the reacted response. McLeod, (2007) suggests humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. Essentially, these terms refer the same approach in psychology. This relates to the belief on genetics and the experiences we go through in life are different from each other. Through ‘ethics’
Also, negative team behavior can be the dominating attitude or the superiority complex. In this case, a team member who shows this behavior usually manipulates other members of the team, say, by being authoritative or insisting more on individual opinions. Also, members who have negative team behaviors show lack of interest and in extreme cases don’t participate in team building. As a result, enhancement of teamwork is hindered. I remember a class team we had formed to work on