Asses the Importance of School Factors Such as Racism and Pupils’ Responses to Racism in Creating Ethnic Difference in Educational Achievement.

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There are many notable differences in educational achievement between white pupils, and those from minority ethnic groups. For example, it is evident that Black students are the lowest performing group, whereas those who are Chinese are best performing. However, there are also variations amongst individual ethnic groups, for example, amongst Asians, Indians achieve higher than Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Also, the same c lass differences are still applicable. Sociologists have developed many different factors that are responsible for these ethnical differences, which can be either “internal” (inside the educational system) or “external” (outside the educational system). I am going to analyse the internal factors, such as labelling, institutional racism and the ethnocentric curriculum. One internal factor is labelling. To label something, is to attaching a meaning, or apply a stereotype. Many sociologists have linked labelling in school, especially by teachers, with the difference in achievements in terms of ethnicity. Negative stereotypes and labels may cause teacher to treat students from an ethnic minority differently, which could in turn, disadvantage them and ultimately, result in them underachieving. Studies from different sociologists back up and support this. Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found in their studies that teachers were more likely to discipline black students quicker than they would with their white counterparts, due to the fact that teachers held “racialised expectations”. They argued that they stereotyped and expected black students to present behaviour such as threatening and challenging authority, which leaves the student feeling underestimated and picked on. This negative labelling and stereotyping could be the resulting reason as to why black students may be placed in lower sets. In addition to this, Bourne (1994) links stereotyping and
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