Assess sociological explanations of ethnic differences in educational achievement Some sociologists argue that some ethnic groups maybe underachieving in the education system whereas some say that these ethnic groups differ in the education system. Material factors may affect ethnic groups in the education system, material deprivation explanations see educational failure as results from factors such as substandard housing and low income. Ethnic minorities are more likely to face these problems according to Flaherty as unemployment is three times higher for African and Bangladeshi/Pakistani people than for whites, Pakistanis are nearly twice as likely to be in unskilled or semi-skilled jobs compared to whites. Ethnic minorities are more likely to be engaged in shift work. These inequalities parallel those in educational achievement e.g.
In addition to this, blacks and Hispanics are more likely to be unemployed than whites and Asians. Black unemployment rate is 16, Hispanic's is 11, whites is 8 and Asians is 7. This indicates that the American dream has not been achieved by all ethnic
Families weren't as well-off economically as they would become by the end of the 1960s. African-Americans in particular had higher rates of poverty than they do now. Women, minorities, gays and non-conforming groups were discriminated against, and victims of family problems got little attention or social assistance. In some ways, the decline of the 1950s family grew out of the trends and contradictions of the fifties themselves. Trends
As item A states “there are important differences in the educational achievement of pupils from different ethnic groups” there are statistics that prove this fact, for example in the UK between 50-60% of all white students on average attain 5 or more A*-C GCSES compared to 75% of Chinese students, the figure is closer to 85% for Chinese girls, and only 40% of Bangladeshi and Pakistani students, Indian pupils on average do better than white pupils but less well than Chinese. This essay will assess sociological explanations for these ethnical differences in educational achievement. Sociologists suggest that to fully understand the reasons behind ethnic differences we must consider both external and internal factors. This essay will begin with internal factors, i.e. the factors that occur within the education system, they can be divided into four different problems, the first being labelling and teacher racism.
Although the for the purpose of this essay I am going to focus mainly on ethnicity, even though the term ethnicity is a contested term. There is an obvious correlation between educational achievement and ethnicity, and many sociologists believe this is to do with two factors; Internal (School) Factors, eg: labelling and the national curriculum, and External (Out Of School) Factors, eg: cultural deprivation and material deprivation. Both factors play their part in the educational achievement of a pupil, however ethnicity is very difficult to measure as both Internal Factors and External Factors should be considered. Tony Lawson and Joan Garrod (2000) define ethnic groups as 'people who share common history, customs and identity, as well as, language and religion, and who see themselves as a distinct unit'. There are clear differences in achievement between different ethnicities.
Racism is linked to the educational achievement of minority ethnic groups, however the connections are complex. Gilborn and Mirza conclude that ‘social class and gender differences are also associated with differences in attainment but neither can account for persistent underlying ethnic inequalities: comparing like with like, African Caribbean, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pupils do not enjoy equal opportunities.’ They also argue that in promoting educational inclusion as a means of raising standards, there is a need ‘for clarity and guidance in translating the commitment to equality and inclusion into policy proposals and practice at the local and school level. A recent research report found that: • Children whose first language is other than English do not perform as well as other children across the Foundation Stage scales • Pupils for whom English was an additional language have lower attainment than pupils whose first language is English. The difference between the two groups is
While they were given some rights as time progressed, equality among all men and women had not been achieved. Even with affirmative action it did not seem as if the individuals were receiving the chance to better their education or obtain a better job because they belonged to a minority group. This unequal treatment is they key argument for the affirmative action. The argument against affirmative action is reverse discrimination. A school that requires its attendants to pass a test is charged with discrimination when it does not meet the quota for its admittance.
If African Americans reject low paying jobs that other immigrants are competing for, they justify the belief that they are less deserving than immigrants. Resentment for this treatment further validates the white belief that African Americans are unworthy, restarting the cycle over again. Gans concludes that it might be a possibility that race could be eventually erased through interracial marriage, but he also points out that Americans may come up with a different way to mark levels of social classes. I feel that Gans’ conclusion follows his evidence logically, explaining the reasons why people socially construct different classes, and what might be a possible outcome in the
76% of White children reside with both parents in relations to 63% of Hispanics and 35% of Black children. White families have the higher income of all groups with the exception of Asians, and have the lowest poverty rates of all racial/ethnic groups. Whites tend to marry late in life, they place
He states that law enforcers think that they would be more accurate in targeting a suspicious group, but in reality, what happens is the total opposite wherein officials have inaccurate results in targeting the suspect—Race Relations. He stated in one of his books evidence proving that the success rate of racial profiling is lower than behavioral