This creates a form of irony and chaos, where the government and or the community are not sure what to do when it comes to how to treat those of different gender and race in the work place. Lastly, Newton explains there is a simple solution to this problem, and that if everyone just refrained from discrimination initially, there will be no conflict nor would there have been any. The second article by Gertrude Ezorsky, “A Reply to Critics of Affirmative Action” is about the effect of affirmative action within the African American community. Ezorsky touches on the subject of whether or not affirmative action compensates African Americans for their lost years of equal treatment. Also, Ezorsky explains her pro view on affirmative action and how it benefits not just the African American community, but helps the reader realize that affirmative
Black pupils felt that teachers underestimated them and picked on them. Gillborn and Youdell conclude that much of the conflict between white teachers and black pupils stems from racial stereotypes which the teachers hold rather than the pupil’s behaviour. Thus, it creates ethnic differences in education achievement as if the teachers do this then it makes the students less motivated to work which may be the reason why black ethnic minority groups might do worst in education. On the other hand, some sociologists would argue and say that the external factors are the important factors which cause ethnic differences in achievement. The Swann report (1985) found that some minorities
Allan Bakke was clearly discriminated against because he did not fall under the races that the university had a predetermined number of admissions for. When the University of California did not admit Bakke, twice, they subjected him to reverse discrimination. An individual’s race should be an additional attribute but not the sole deciding factor for admission. To this day affirmative action programs, as well as the topic of reverse discrimination, are contentious subjects (Shay, 2012). As the Court was almost split on the decision, so are many
All the work of leaders and civil rights movement activist would be vain. Martin Luther king jr and Malcolm X’s deaths would have also been vain. People worked hard to insure integration and equality and it would be terrible if none of their teachings and efforts would have been applied. Instead of having the same rights and uses of materials in schools like Thurgood Marshall helped fight for, society would have to deal with one race being superior there for receiving better school material. When segregation was legal blacks received the worst material to study and get their education therefore they had an inferior education.
The school also examined a host of subjective factors in making its admissions decisions, including the race and ethnicity of the candidates. "Underrepresented" racial and ethnic minority applicants (i.e., African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans) were looked upon favorably because they helped achieve the school's mission of student diversity. Evidence suggested that without the school's affirmative action policy, an underrepresented minority’s average chance of admission would decrease from 35 percent to 10 percent. Barbara Grutter, a white Michigan resident whose application was rejected, sued the school in a lower federal court alleging that its admissions policy was unconstitutional. Grutter alleged that the school made race a "predominate" factor in admissions decisions and that the school intentionally discriminated against whites, and that this violated the Fourteenth Amendment, which forbids states from denying "to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection
Many sociologists have linked labelling in school, especially by teachers, with the difference in achievements in terms of ethnicity. Negative stereotypes and labels may cause teacher to treat students from an ethnic minority differently, which could in turn, disadvantage them and ultimately, result in them underachieving. Studies from different sociologists back up and support this. Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found in their studies that teachers were more likely to discipline black students quicker than they would with their white counterparts, due to the fact that teachers held “racialised expectations”. They argued that they stereotyped and expected black students to present behaviour such as threatening and challenging authority, which leaves the student feeling underestimated and picked on.
Competition is relegated to activities that are do not affect the hiring or promotion of employees. This effectively denies an employer the opportunity to examine the individual merits of an applicant, unless one presumes race and genders are “merits.” This can have drastic negative consequences on morae, as workers lose motivation to improve. As former Governor of California Pete Wilson said, “What's the purpose of preparing our children to compete and win in the marketplace if the marketplace itself is governed by laws that discriminate against the most qualified in favor of the less qualified?” (Jabbra, 2000) The mere fact that minorities are underrepresented does not mean they are being unlawfully discriminated against. If one were to look at the National Basketball Association, one could not deny the overwhelming lack of non-blacks in the league. Does the NBA seek only to hire black males by artificially creating an environment that precludes whites, Hispanics, Asians, and other non-black athletes?
Where as before they were consistently achieving the highest grades on the old assessments, on FSP black students were being introduced into a process of educational failure due to white supremacist attitudes which match those in the US which leads to failure being the only norm attributed to black people in life not just in compulsory learning. The issues faced by black people in the UK are almost identical to those in the US, however it is projected in a different context. Whereas in the UK students are separated into placement sets which provides the disadvantage, in the US students are separated into schools which have a dominate black populations and receives less funding than other schools with a majority white student body. With this distinction and comparison made between the Critical Race Theory of the US and the UK, the notion of “separate but equal” (US Department of Justice, 1896) exist in equal measure in both states. This paper would argue that the indoctrination of whiteness, as defined by Gillborn as the “assumptions and actions” (2008, p. 9) of whites, is maintained through an invisible and legal form of segregation, which exist in the schools of Britain.
According to a report released by the Applied Research center, “Students of color are subjected to racist policies that limit their opportunity to learn and ability to succeed in life. Racial Profiling and Punishment in U.S. Public Schools, outlines how excessive security measures subvert academic excellence and racial equity for students of color in U.S. public schools.” (Race Forward,
Another negative of affirmative action according to opponents is that it can increase the already strong tension between minority groups and majority groups – for example, if a white person doesn’t get a job because his opponent is African American, then that causes the white person to hold personal grudges against the latter (Reynolds). One of the first more recent counter affirmative action court cases appeared in 1996, when four white law-school applicants at the University of Texas challenged their school's affirmative action program. They stated that they were rejected because of unfair preferences toward less qualified minority applicants. As a result, the university's affirmative action admissions programs were removed as well as the specific racial/minority quotas that they had to meet