To label someone is to attach a meaning or a definition to them. This is studied by Interactionists. When looking at ethnic differences in achievement, studies show that teacher often see black and Asian pupils as being far from the ‘ideal’ pupil. These negative labels leads to ethnic minority pupils being treated differently, resulting in their low educational performance. Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found that teachers expected black pupils to present more discipline problems and misinterpreted their behaviour as threatening or as a challenge to authority.
Assess the claim that ethnic differences in educational achievement are primarily the result of school factors. Differences in educational achievement can be demonstrated through ethnicity, this can be for a number of reasons. Write(1992) found that teachers treated and perceived ethnic pupils differently from white pupils. Sewell (1996) said ‘Many people are fearful of black boys.’ This stereotyping could lead to the ‘black boys’ receiving a different teaching approach, therefore a worse education. All the students should be treated equally but African-Caribbean boys have been labeled as unruly, disrespectful, difficult to control and ‘reject the white dominated education system’(O’Donnel 1991).
On the other hand, Gilbon recognises the processes committed in school which create the ethnic differences in attainment, he found that Afro-Caribbean boys were often labelled “unruly” “disrespectful”, they were also more likely to be given detentions than other pupils. This was because teachers misinterpreted their dress and manner of speech as a challenge to their authority. These actions lead these boys to have a self fulfilling prophecy which results in them
Outline some of the ways in which cultural deprivation may lead to the educational underachievement of working class pupils (12 marks) Cultural deprivation is the idea that the culture of low income groups is deprived or deficient in certain aspects which accounts for low educational achievement. Educational underachievement is when pupils fail to reach their full potential and meet their aspired grades. This essay will outline some of the ways in which cultural deprivation can lead to the educational underachievement of working class pupils. One way in which cultural deprivation may lead to educational underachievement is due to the lack of intellectual stimulation that working class parents have on their children. It has been found that working class parents are less likely to give their children educational toys or read to them.
They also just threatened them not to vote, which was successful because it frightened them away. Being unable to vote resulted in them not able to try and persuade or influence of getting rid of segregation. Segregation is the idea based on black and white people could have separate access to services but had to be in different schools, as long as the services were equal. This brings me on to the point of segregated schools; the schools weren’t equal. ‘Separate but equal’ was used by segregationists as a way of justifying the separate education that races received and in reality it meant that the
Evaluate the claim that the main reason why working-class children underachieve in education is their poverty. (20 Marks) It can be strongly argued that the claim for working-class children underachieving is due to their poverty, some reason for and against this are written below. One of the reasons for which enforces the statement above is the internal part, for example an internal factor of working-class (W.C) underachieving in school is the theory of labelling. The labelling theory is a theory that suggests teachers, mostly middle-class, are generally known for labelling their students. If a W.C student is labelled by a middle-class (M.C) teacher the student often believe that the teacher is right therefore they take that label they have been given and they become a self-fulfilling prophecy which means they accept the label they have been given and stay that standard, this is basically saying if a student is labelled negatively they stay negative because they are ‘fulfilling their own prophecy’ so they are now going to underachieve in education.
This cultural deprivation which Murray controversially links to lower IQ levels, is seen as creating a group of pupils who are fundamentally alienated from the education system. Cultural deprivation has been widely criticised as an explanation of class differences in
Many sociologists argue that ethnic differences in achievement can best be explained by looking at factors outside the school- in the home, family and culture of the child and the impact of wider society. The main explanations of this kind are: cultural deprivation, material deprivation and class, racism in wider society. Cultural deprivation theory sees the under achievement of some ethnic groups as the result of inadequate socialisation in the home. The explanation has three main aspects: intellectual and linguistic skills, attitudes and values and family structure. Cultural deprivation theorists see the lack of intellectual and linguistic skills as a major cause of underachievement for many minority children.
Charles Lawrence uses the case, Brown v. the Board of Education, as an example. Although he argues similar to Brown’s case, the prejudice and racial ways in many schools caused unfair conditions to the victim’s of racial comments. He also argues that racist speech can hinder many people so much that it can make them very uncomfortable in their educational environment. Lawrence goes on to talk about racist speech in the form of face-to-face insults which falls right under fighting words, excepted by the First Amendment Protection. He explains that whenever someone decides that racial comments has to be accepted, we are asking people to accept the hurt of racial comments for everyone else.
Indeed, these influences most dramatically affect low-income students and students of color; [Psychologist Claude] Steele has found that African-American students, specifically, perform significantly below their potential on tests in which they know they are being assessed on their intellectual performance, largely due to what he calls "stereotype threats," a historical and well supported fear that tests created by the dominant culture will judge them to be "wanting" (French, 2003). For example, African-American students were unengaged in the attitudes and behaviors that lead to school success because, to them, accepting the school curriculum, language, and pedagogy would mean rejecting their collective identity (Flaxman,