It provided that there could be separate public facilities, like schools and movie theaters as long as the facilities were near equal in equality. The problem was that the court did not define “equal” in the quality, and the facilities for the blacks became second class. The government was willing to make it seems as though blacks would have rights due to the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. The Supreme Court decision was a major setback for African Americans seeking equality in the United States. The ruling further paved the way for numerous state laws throughout the country making segregation which resulted in making discrimination legal in almost all parts of daily life.
Her father tried to get her into a white school, which was only seven blocks away, but the principle of the school refused to allow her to enroll. Brown went to the head of Topeka’s NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and asked for his help. The NAACP was all eager to help the Browns in their case against the school because they wanted to take on segregation in schools for quite some time. The case was described as, “the right plaintiff at the right time.” By 1951, with other black parents joining the cause, the NAACP pushed for an injunction to end segregation in Topeka’s public schools. When the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas heard their case, the NAACP argued that segregated schools gave the message to black children that they weren’t equal, and naturally inadequate.
Even though they said people would get treated “equally”, it was all lies. The black people were getting inferior accommodations, services, and treatment. A class action suit was filed against the Board of Education of the city of Topeka, Kansas in the United States District Court for the District of Kansas in 1951. The plaintiffs consisted of thirteen parents of twenty children who attended the Topeka School District. They filed the suit hoping that the school district would change its policy of racial segregation.
In the book “Racial Equality in America” John Franklin, the author, speaks on the many problems of racial Equivalence. While he voices the many points of inequality in America, he expresses heavy concern on two main points. The first being inequality in education and inequality in the law. In the book John states “Black children, however, were denied such an opportunity because it was assumed that they were incapable of benefiting from such an experience and because white society had defined for them an inferior role in which education was really not necessary anyway. Thus, they were officially denied every opportunity for an education in the slave states, while in the free states they were largely excluded from the schools for whites and were given only that training deemed suitable for their inferior status.
The protest was over African American voting rights, as few African Americans could vote due to racist whites manipulating the voting system. African Americans shied away from voting because of fear of being harassed or absurd tests were given, such as stating the entire U.S Constitution. Johnson’s purpose of his speech was to convince Congress and Americans everywhere to pass his bill on voting reformation. To help make the speech more effective and convincing, Johnson used rhetorical strategies, such as ethos, logos, and pathos. Johnson’s first part of the speech uses rhetorical qualities that unify the audience and make them sympathize with the victims of voting rights.
Case Name: Equal Protection BROWN v. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA Supreme Court of the United States, 1954 347 U.S. 483, 74 S Ct. 686, 98 L. Ed. 873 Facts: Minors of the Negro race, through their legal representatives, seek the aid of the courts in obtaining admission to the public schools of their community on a non segregated basis. In each instance, they have been denied admission to schools attended by white children under laws requiring or permitting segregation according to race. Procedural History: The plaintiffs of the State of Kansas, South Carolina, and Virginia cases were denied relief by a three-judge federal district court on the grounds "separate but equal" doctrine announced by this Court in Plessy v. Fergusson. Under that doctrine, equality of treatment is accorded when the races are provided substantially equal facilities, even though these facilities be separate.
In short, the Court was asked to determine whether the segregation of schools was at all constitutional. In this case discrimination was the main factor in which affected the rights of African American’s to have more freedom. The Supreme Court's opinion in the brown case of 1954 legally ended decades of racial segregation in America's public schools. Originally named
The segregation of schools was based on the belief of the intellectually inferior label associated with Blacks, and in an effort to maintain the majority white population’s educational experience. The segregation of minorities also had an effect on public transportation. Blacks were prohibited from sitting in the front of a public bus. Rosa Parks has been acknowledged for her refusal efforts to move herself from the front of the bus, after a long day at work. Many other Black minorities have attempted the same action in an effort to take a stand against segregation.
I believe the Montgomery bus boycott was the most important event in the 1950s -1960s in changing the civil rights for African-Americans, because this event gained internationally attention. On the 1st of December 1955 a white man requested for Rosa Parks’ seat however she refused as it seemed unreasonable. Leading her to be arrested, this act was very important because it went against the Jim Crow which was created to force segregation in public school systems, kept many African-Americans from moving out of segregated neighbourhoods and often made it difficult for African-Americans to vote. Overall it was very unfair to the black community, as a result the black community in Alabama started a non-violent boycott of the buses, leaving buses only half full this had a major financial impact on bus companies as it was the black community who used buses the most and the event was lead by Martin Luther King. This event was important because it gained international attention which put pressure on the different structures of the American government to make changes, and finally in 1965 the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was illegal.
The black power movement hindered from the blacks to achieve their aim more then it helped them. Although some campaigns such as the NAACP welcomed black and white members arguing that co-operation would make the movement stronger, there were other groups that prevented the blacks from achieving their aim and gaining rights because black movement groups such as the Nation Of Islam and SNCC introduced the use of self-defence, heritage not to work with whites and criticism which hindered the black civil rights. One reason why the black power movement hindered black civil rights was because of the use of self-defence and violence. Malcolm X believed that self-defence was a more powerful weapon than love and forgiveness. He advocated gun ownership for black Americans.