CBT is a problem-solving/task-centered approach which recognizes and challenges illogical and faulty beliefs in an effort to change negative or destructive behavior. CBT combines elements of both cognitive and behavior therapy to track and modify the thoughts and behaviors of the client in order to increase desired behaviors and thoughts and to decrease undesired behaviors and thoughts while improving problem solving skills. The major goal of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is to alter unproductive behaviors and thought patterns in an effort to improve the perceived problem and undesired behaviors. Some of its general goals are to increase desired behaviors and thoughts, decrease undesirable behaviors and thoughts and improve problem solving skills. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is divided into three major phases.
Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: From Miller to Bandura and Beyond The Social-Cognitive learning theory is based off a collaboration of many psychologists work and ideas, it is based on the concepts that we learn (and gain our personalities) by watching how others react to their environment. The original concept originated from psychologists N.E Miller and J. Dollard in the early 1940’s. In the mid 1950’s American psychologist Julian Rotter drifted from the theories of psychoanalysis and behaviourism and wrote on social learning theories. In the 1960’s a Canadian psychologist, Albert Bandura, expanded on theories and became the leading architect of social cognitive theory (Santrock, 2011, p. 27). In 1941 N.E Miller and associate J. Dollard proposed that one could learn a behavior by observing that behavior in others.
I am going to explore the core conditions that Carl Rogers uses in his theory of person centred counselling. There are three core conditions: congruence, empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard. These conditions are what Carl Rogers believed are the skills a counsellor needs in order to be able to support the client in their process of healing themselves. I am then going to use my own experiences to discuss why I feel that only using the person technique, for certain clients, may not be sufficient to make the progress they require on an emotional level. On the other hand I am going to discuss how learning the person centred approach has affected my personal and work life in a positive way.
E1 One of the practitioner’s roles in meeting children’s learning needs could be to understand and work with other practitioners and staff. This can help to provide different learning opportunities to individual children because each child is unique as practitioners should take into consideration all diverse learning needs, for example there are many activities that could be changed to suit individual children. The practitioners’ role would therefore be to plan and resource an environment that is challenging and helps children learn in many different areas of their learning. The role of the practitioner in supporting the learning needs of children is they have to complete regular assessments on their development and learning to identify their progress and plan their next steps to help the children achieve further. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), (2012) states that the role of the practitioner is crucial in observing and reflecting on children’s spontaneous play, building on this by planning and providing a challenging environment which supports specific areas of children’s learning and extends and develops children’s language and communication in their play.
1.1 Different reasons why people communicate. When in early years setting, people communicate for a range of purposes, such as, to give/receive information or instructions, to discuss an issue, to express needs/opinions and to develop their own learning. When those, who provide care for children and young people, communicate, their practice becomes better adapted and communication is vital to work together as a team. According to K.Beith et al “as an early years practitioner, the way you communicate with adults will also affect the quality of care provided for the children” and it is important to communicate effectively to ensure that everyone has clear information and can understand your actions. (Beith.K et al,Pg.2, Level 2 certificate for the Children and young people’s workforce, 2010, Heinemann, Harlow) When I work with children I communicate with children and young people to build relationships, verbal or non-verbal communication may be used to help children and young people feel welcome and valued, and to co-ordinate activities.
I will conclude with additional pluses and minuses of the client centred method of treatment & whether it provides all that a therapist needs to treat clients. Psychotherapy began as psychoanalytical in nature, thereafter the behavioral model of treatment started to come into fashion. This was proceeded by the person centred therapy developed by ‘Carl Rogers’ which falls into the humanistic therapy category. Whilst this and other humanistic theories and prior methods of treatment have continued, additional methods such as Cognitive therapy have emerged along with an eclectic therapy, where more than one method is used. ‘Carl Rogers’ focused on what he believed was each person’s desire and drive for self improvement and how he believed that each person possessed a natural desire to actualize their full potential and in essence wanted to achieve being the best that they could be.
In the person centered approach, the therapy focuses on an important human characteristic - the client’s natural ability for growth and development, through the use of self actualization. (Capuzzi & Gross, 2005). Therapeutic Process in Individual Counseling The belief is that in individual counseling, an ideal form of the therapeutic process or therapy is comprised of various techniques stemming from the Psychodynamic Approach, Cognitive-Behavioral Approach and the Person-Centered Approach, but also includes methods of behavior modification as is found in Operant Conditioning. The therapeutic process varies between therapists and as is done here, can be comprised of various approaches and/or techniques that enable the therapist to effectively tailor the therapy to that client. The psychodynamic approach searches to explain “how an individual’s personality expresses itself through the behavior” displayed in various situations.
CYPW Level 2 SHC 21: Introduction to communication in health, social care or children's and young people's settings Task 1 Links to learning outcomes 1, assessment criteria 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. 1.1 - Identify the different reasons people communicate. We communicate for so many different reasons for example when we need to give or receive information, give or receive instructions, to discuss situations, express their needs, negotiate, develop learning,outline a concern and make a point these are all a very important way to communicate between children, young people and parents if we can't and don't do this it can strain relationships, cause confidence issues or make people feel there are barriers that can't be broken down. 1.2 - Explain how effective communication affects all aspects of your work. Effective communication can benefit your working role especially relationships between you and the children in your care or key children you or your colleagues and between you and parents.
Assessment 1 TDA 3.1: Communication and professional relationships with children, young people an adults. 1. Learning outcomes: Understand the principles of developing positive relationships with children, young people and adults. Criteria 1.1-1.3 Effective communication is a skill that is necessary making and maintaining new relationships with both, children and adults. It is all about making the contact with others and being understood.
Where necessary I adapt my style of communication and use appropriate communication systems that meet the child’s needs and abilities. Children of a young age will have different levels of requirements and attention that that of an older child. When children start in our Reception classes they need lots of support and reassurance in order for them to adjust to the school environment and develop their independence. When communicating with younger children