Figure 1 Example of Cracks Cracks are the most common defect found in concrete flooring. They range from small hairline cracks that are barely visible to ones where two sections of the floor slab have completely separated and moved apart. They are caused by a number of factors including settlement of the building, insufficient or improperly located expansion joints, overloading, or defects in the concrete material itself. Any type of concrete floor crack can form an opening for water to enter the flooring, causing additional damage to the floor. Minor floor cracks that are not structural in nature should be sealed to prevent water entry.
Estimated cost to rebuild the basics = £100 billion. The worst affected area was in the central part of Kobe including the main docks and port area. This area is built on incompetent rocks, especially the port itself which is built on reclaimed ground. Here the ground underwent liquefaction and acting like a plastic, allowed buildings to topple sideways. Emergency aid for the city needed to use damaged roads but many of them were destroyed during the earthquake.
The cracks multiple throughout the levee made it weak, these cracks made it easy to be failure in the levee. According to (''what went wrong'', 2007) there was noticed breaches in the levee on the Orleans Parish near to 17th street canal which result in leak in that levee. The speed of the winds was estimated by (''what went wrong'', 2007) and it was 111-130 MPH. The other caused and it was the most affect on the levee failure was the design of the levee. Even though the category of Katrina was not stronger than 3 category when it hit New Orleans, it caused the failure in the levee.
Discuss the view that the impact of earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors  An earthquake is a tremor or shockwave in the earth’s crust that is caused by the sudden movement of the crust, resulting in the earth shaking. Most earthquakes are a consequence of tectonic plate movement by tension causing a sudden release of energy or rubbing. These normally occur at plate margins or along fault lines and can cause hazards which need to be prevented where possible. Earthquakes can therefore occur at all plate boundaries, destructive, constructive and conservative but the most damaging tend to happen at destructive margins where the earthquakes have a high magnitude due to the rubbing of the oceanic and continental crusts. A hazard is a natural event that has the potential to effect both life and property.
At last for conservations margins, the tension build up when plate are grinding past each other get stuck. Afterwards the plate will finally jerk past each other and sending out shock waves which is vibrations which is earthquakes. They both create lots of impact. For examples for the volcano eruption in Montserrat which is a LEDC, it cause 19
The towns there are being threatened and damaged, and there have been many villages to be washed into the sea along this stretch of the eastern coastline. Here are some photographs to back up this point further: (Sources 1, 2 & 3) Why is the coastline eroding at such a fast rate? The Holderness coast is made up mostly of clay and chalk so naturally the coast is likely to erode faster than areas of coastline made of hard rock. However, at Holderness, the rock is much weaker and gets eroded at a much higher rate. Yet, in some places, groynes have been put in place to trap sediment and protect these areas of weak coast, largely the areas with major towns.
‘Technology is the best way to reduce the impact of an earthquake’ to what extent do you agree with this view An earthquake hazard is caused by plate movement, causing harm to a group of people in an urbanised geographical area. An earthquake is only a hazard when it causes disaster or impacts the lives of humans. The most destructive earthquakes are found at conservative plate margins, where the plates slide past each other, with a build up of friction. The plates become stuck and suddenly jolt, causing a shallow focus earthquake. The risk of an earthquake can be shown through the risk equation R=MXP/V the risk is calculated through the magnitude times by the population and divided by the vulnerability.
Thicker, more viscous magma has a greater potential for explosive eruptions and therefore represent the greatest potential hazards. The thickest type of magma is known as Acid Magma. Its relatively low temperature (600C-1000C), high silica content and low proportion of dissolved gases causes its toothpaste-like consistency that leads to blockages and powerful eruptions. This can mean that the eruptions caused by thick magma can be less frequent and more difficult to predict, meaning that when an eruption does occur, it is usually with little or no warning, which can lead to catastrophic consequences as any nearby settlement will be relatively unprepared for the effects of a violent volcanic eruption. Furthermore, acid magma is more likely to produce clouds of smoke and ash due to the explosive nature of the eruption it causes, than thinner, basic lava.
Flooding is when unusually high amounts of rain lands on an already saturated area or has a high water table. The river systems cannot remove the water as quickly as it arrives therefore resulting in an overflow of water which finds other ways of escaping. Thereby resulting in flooding of flat areas or valleys. As an example in 2010 the Philippines experienced a flood in which 452 999 people were displaces, from which 68 died and it resulted in $20,396,723 in damages. This flood was induced by a typhoon that had hit the mountain ranges afterwards and led to surface run off.
Seismic events prove that it is a problematic for the world's population and produce devastating effects on the lives of everyone involved. However it is often said that LEDCs suffer much more from the effects of earthquakes than MEDCs. Whilst this is a generalisation it is probably true, at least in terms of the human cost. Poverty is the condition of lacking basic human needs such as nutrition, clean water, health care, clothing, and shelter because of the inability to afford them. There are several levels of poverty from an individual to national level and earthquake disasters impact at all levels.