The word “Romanesque” (coined in 1818, 1819 or 1824 --there is no total agreement-- as a bridging term between Roman and Carolingian architecture that preceded “Romanesque,” and Gothic that followed it) embraces architecture, art, and sculpture. It was a European cultural phenomenon promoted from the late 10th century to about 1200** by the rapid expansion of monastic orders, the most powerful of which was the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny (founded in 910) in Burgundy, eastern France. The most widespread and magnificent expressions of Romanesque are to be found mainly in churches and church related buildings: e.g. monasteries, abbeys, pilgrim shelters, hospices. What is Romanesque Architecture?
This dilemma was an understandable one, for when the early modernist movement was developing, the European schools of architecture were under the strain of hundreds or thousands years of successful architectural tradition. Architects were continuing to draw inspiration from Greek, Roman, Egyptian, or Gothic architecture styles. It was as a result of this, then, the transition from historic architectural styles to a modern form was a relatively gradual one. Proof of this can be found by examining some of the earliest works of early modernism. Early modernism began as a means of addressing worsening social conditions brought about by failures in urban and architectural design, as well as utilizing a variety of new materials which allowed designers to explore new territories in building design.
In earlier times, cathedrals were often built in the Romanesque style. This architecture was more solid and square. However, many cathedrals in later medieval times were Gothic, which was a style of architecture that evolved in the early 1100s and describes the particular church architecture that spread throughout medieval Europe.
With the distinct Victorian architecture in mind, architects designed extraordinary buildings such as the State Library, University of Melbourne and the Royal Exhibition Building. Many houses and buildings had wrought iron lacework to decorate the verandas. They also had even slated roof and several buildings had domes or spires to their rooftops. Any person walking through the street of Melbourne in the 1800s could see the amazing architecture the city had to offer. The clothing of Melbourne city was said to be the best and always in fashion.
The Art Nouveau is an artistic movement developed from the end of XIX century to the first quarter of XX century. The first references of Art Nouveau are in England with the works of John Ruskin (1819-1900) The Art Nouveau gets its expression in different art shapes, like stone front walls, ceramics, and forged iron, interiors with curved walls, frequently with an exuberant ornamentation Antoni Gaudí i Cornet 25 June 1852–10 June 1926. He was a Spanish Catalan architect and figurehead of Catalan Modernism. Gaudí's works reflect his highly individual and distinctive style and are largely concentrated in the Catalan capital of Barcelona, notably his magnum opus, the Sagrada Familia. Much of Gaudí's work was marked by his four life passions: architecture, nature, religion and love for Catalonia.
However, the impact of a long contact with the Persian culture can be seen in the designing and execution of his Mausoleum under the supervision of his wife Hamida Banu Begum. The flowering of the Mughal architecture in reality took place uhder Akbar. He encouraged a hybrid style, containing foreign as well as indigenous element. Akbar particularly appreciated the resources of the indigenous artisans and got them translated in the buildings of Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar’s son Jahangir was not a notable builder, but Jahangir’s son Shah Jahan was one of the greatest builder in medeival India.
From the beginning of time, mankind has developed many distinct methods of construction. These architectural methods have advanced from round huts to pyramids to skyscrapers. Over the years, designers from many different cultures have improved ways of constructing buildings in order to create those of the highest quality. One culture, in specific, that is well-known for its excellence in architectural design is that of Ancient Rome. They are most famous for their architecture, based on the new ideas and materials that they established.
Doric columns made somewhat of a comeback in in the 19th century and can be seen in the Northington Grange in England among other architecture. The last order is the Corinthian architecture, which is the most complex of the three. Like the Ionic, columns had large bases and fluted shafts. What sets the Corinthian apart is the very ornate capital. The capitals were decorated with leaves, flowers and scrolls.
Modern architecture is the term used to describe the simplified, unornamented building styles of the late 19th and the 20th centuries. These building styles are also known by other labels like International Style, Neue Sachlichkeit or New Objectivity, and Functionalism. Modern architecture developed as a reaction to the design excesses of the Victorian and the Edwardian period. Proponents of the modern style wanted designs that were more in keeping with the social and political developments of a new age. It also became possible to implement these new design ideas as a result of new technological and engineering developments.
Starting in 1840, leading artists, designers, and critics tried to develop new approaches to architecture. Modern architecture has its roots in a number of different origins. One of the persistent ideas in 20th-century architecture, however, is the belief of many, engineers as well as architects, that "beauty could be seen in the clear expression of the structural properties of the new materials" (Curtis 25). As iron, glass, and steel became available, building construction was no longer limited to stone and wood. One structure built for the Paris World's Fair of 1889 showed this exactly.