However, some results may be invalidated by the participants knowing either the true aim of the study or the fact that they are being studied at all. If the participant was to know the true nature of the study, they may adapt their behaviour in order to fit in (socially desirable) or they may act in a way that they think the researcher is expecting (demand characteristics). For example, in Milgram's electric shock experiment, it is highly likely that more participants would have delivered the higher shocks to the 'learner' if they had known the reality of the entire study. This makes the participants actions and behaviour unnatural and could invalidate the data completely. When considering this issue, sociologists should also consider that participants should also be offered the right to refuse.
They exist in all studies and can affect the measurement of study variables and the relationships among these variables. Because of this, they are of primary concern in quantitative studies because they can interfere with obtaining a clear understanding of the relational or causal dynamics within these studies (Burns & Grove, 2011). Another way to think of it is they are variables that could possibly
CONFOUND: A confound means that there is an alternative explanation beyond the experimental variables for any observed differences in the dependent variable EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES: Variables that naturally exist in the environment that may have some systematic effect on the dependent variable DEMAND CHARACTERISTIC: Experimental design element or procedure that unintentionally provides subjects with hints about the research hypothesis DEMAND EFFECT: Occurs when demand characteristics actually affect the dependent variables HAWTHORNE EFFECT: People will perform differently from normal when they know they are experimental subjects PLACEBO: A false experimental condition aimed at creating the impression of an effect PLACEBO EFFECT: The effect in a dependent variable associated with the psychological impact that goes along with knowledge of some treatment being administered CONSTANCY OF CODITIONS: Means that subjects in all experimental groups are exposed to identical conditions except for the differing experimental treatments COUNTERBALANCING: Attempts to eliminate the confounding effects of order of presentation by requiring that one-fourth of the subjects be exposed to treatment A first, one-fourth to treatment B first, one-fourth to treatment C first, and finally one-fourth to treatment D
I believe that 8.07 Deception in Research may be the main principle that would apply since the researcher may downplay the pain, emotional distress and risks that may be associated with this study. This then leads into 8.014 Sharing Research Data for Verification which would mean the researcher could not withhold their data so that it could be compared by other
How can such threats be controlled or eliminated? Theories once proposed, need to be tested against the real world via a variety of research strategies, including experimentation and case studies. Research design have to consist of the logic and structure inherent in any particular approach to data gathering. There are two types of validity those are that limit the certainty that internal interventions caused the changes in research findings, which is called internal validity and those that affect the ability of researchers to generalize the research findings to other settings. 4.
Underreporting occurs due to individuals being dishonest regarding their behavior, therefore causing an error in the research done. A possible solution to this limitation is focusing on observed behavior, and correlating the findings with the self-reporting behavior, therefore developing a conclusion that is more in-depth. Furthermore, Article 2 emphasized that other factors can influence self-labeling as a victim in relation to work-place bullying, not just anxiety and anger. In addition, discovering a moderation effect regarding negative acts of violence and self-labeling is hard to discover due to the psychological way an individual may experience an event. Lastly, Article 3 honed on the lack of variances of deviant behavior.
Vulnerability of Connectivity: Although, scientists are working on trust management systems for the verification of the information gathered for an appropriate action. Fraudulent information and entities can still infiltrate the information network. This information can then be treated like normal data and has the potential to diffuse and infect other connected entities of the information network. This vulnerability is primarily caused by the connected nature of information producing and consuming entities, this vulnerability of connectivity and cascading errors/failures. 5.
When intentionally deceiving any participant, you risk harming them because the integrity of the informed consent process is jeopardized. Participants have the right to full disclosure about the nature and purpose of the research, the procedures being used, and the expected benefits the research will provide.
To understand better theory addresses the issue why, while methodology addresses the issue of what is. Two types of research are pure research and applied research. Pure research or basic research is not to invent or create something but gain knowledge for knowledge sake. Applied research, on the other hand, is designed to solve immediate policy problems. Other types of research are qualitative and quantitative research.
Weaknesses of Causal Comparative Two weaknesses in causal-comparative research are lack of randomization and inability to manipulate an independent variable. A major threat to the internal validity of a causal-comparative study is the possibility of a subject selection bias. The chief procedures that a researcher can use to reduce this threat include matching subjects on a related variable or creating homogeneous subgroups, and the technique of statistical matching. Other threats to internal validity in causal-comparative studies include location, instrumentation, and loss of subjects. In addition, type 3 studies are subject to implementation, history, maturation, attitude of subjects, regression, and testing threats.