In order to fully appreciate the importance of this process, the history that led to its inclusion in research projects must be understood. Although informed consent is designed to make sure that a participant fully understands the procedures, beneﬁts, and risks involved in an experiment, it is not without its ﬂaws in its practical application. There are many covert communication barriers between participants and researchers that lead to misunderstandings. This prevents participants from making the fully autonomous decisions sought for in the informed consent process. Some of those barriers are related to cultural aspects such as language diﬀerences and religious dogma.
Had the subjects been informed of the study’s purpose, the question of ethics would be less ambiguous. Some would argue that the special conditions needed for this study required the lack of informed consent. Males in the study would perhaps behave differently had they known what the goal of the study was, or that they were even partaking in a study. Although this is a valid point, debriefing and the request of consent after the experiment were attainable and would have put together a more ethical and less questionable study. Various approaches could have been used to compensate for the lack of personal privacy and informed consent but were not.
Ethical Dilemma in Psychotherapy Introduction: In the practice of psychology, psychologists are often challenged with unique dilemmas and issues for which they may not be ready for. Confidentiality in the realm of therapy is of vital importance. It is one of the aspects that facilitate a psychologically secure atmosphere within which a person can share intricate parts of their lives and themselves. Without a guarantee of confidentiality, the majority of patients would be hesitant in sharing of themselves and would most likely benefit much from therapy. This paper will examine an ethical dilemma that a psychotherapist/psychologist faces, how he dealt with the dilemma, and his reasoning behind how he dealt with the dilemma.
The respondents could be embarrassed or shy and may provide socially desirable answers. In addition, they may not know who is going to see this questionnaire or what is going to be used so they may shy away from information that is more personal. These problems can put questionnaires at a disadvantage when compared to observational methods, as the observer can identify himself or herself what the respondents really do, rather than
In fact, should a client not pay for his service, he will send their account to a collection agency. It is a challenge to determine the appropriate course to take with this difficult ethical dilemma. Kitchener (1984) identified moral principles that a counselor is asked to confront. The five principles, autonomy, justice, benefiance, nonmaleficence, and fidelity are the principles which will give a guidelines and help clarify the issue given in the case of Mark. Autonomy addresses the individuals’ right to freedom of choice and the responsibility of the counselor to encourage clients to make their own decisions and act on their values.
Confidentiality of a client can be a challenge when switching the role of an advocate to become the mediator. As an advocate there will be information known that could influence the success of the mediator. Personal Philosophy in Planned Parenthood The most important aspect to have when working as an advocator and a mediator would be self-awareness. An individual needs to know what possible biases may be present within him or herself. An individual needs to leave personal values, opinions, and personal biases completely out of the
Second, the participants were deceived. According to ethical code of researches, participants should be completely informed what would take place during the experiment in the inform consent form before the experiment, but the researchers did not properly address all the situations to the participants. The violence was completely not expectable by the participants. From the perspective of ethical issue, it was wrong to conduct this experiment, but from the perspective of research, it is right to conduct this experiment. Therefore, I would say that it is worthy to conduct this experiment because the outcomes of experiment are very useful for the discovery of human behaviors.
Benefits come from belonging in a group, individuals may conform on the surface but disagree with the group internally. This is called compliance, going along with the majority despite knowing they are incorrect. Informational social influence; is powered by what people need or their motives. When people are unaware how to behave, think or feel in a social situation the need for conformity is the need to be safe. An example of psychological research in conformity is Asch (1951) line study, where there were varying amount of both participants and confederates and they were asked to state which line was bigger out of three.
Case FOR Deception Although deception is known to be controversial ethically, it is sometimes paramount for the validity of a research study. Deception is often an essential part of psychological research; it allows the researcher to avoid misleading results that may occur within an experiment where participants had not, for ethical reasons, been deceived. It allows for an experiment setting to be more realistic than artificial and mitigates the effect of the participants’ motives to deliberately warp their answers or actions in order to fit their role (Kimmel, 2011). When studying certain topics, explicitly telling the participant what to expect may seriously hinder results. It may remove the necessary naivety of the participant thus providing invalid data as they gain the potential to deliberately distort the data they provide.
One area of counseling that appears to be overlooked when viewing these counseling sessions is the ethical responsibility of the counselor. Just as there are differences in the approaches between individual and group counseling, there are ethical differences between the two as well. This paper will begin by exploring what ethics is and why it is important then focus on the ethical differences between individual and group counseling. There are many professions that are required to follow some sort of ethical guidelines. While each discipline may have individual requirements, the premise for all is to provide certain guidelines to do no harm for the clients.