JAMES MINOR 5/7/13 UNIT 7 ASSIGNMENT 1 VIDEO SUMMARY 5 CLIP 1.01 BIOS * FIRST PROGRAM ACTIVATED DURING BOOT * ROM (READ ONLY MEMORY) * PERMANENT * CANNOT BE DELETED * DOES NOT REQUIRE POWER TO MAINTAIN CONTENT POST * BOOTSTRAP LOADER INITIATES POST * POWER ON SELF TEST * CHECKS BASIC SYSTEM HARDWARE * CHECKS MEMORY * ASSIGNS SYSTEMS RESOURCES CMOS * STARTUP BIOS CHECKS CMOS * COMPARES TO POST * RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY) * NOT PERMANENT * MAY BE CHANGED BIOS AND CMOS ARE DIFFERENT * BIOS STORED IN ROM, PERMANENT AND CANNOT BE DELETED * CMOS STORED IN RAM, VOLITILE AND CAN BE EDITED * STORED IN RAM * RAM CONTENTS ARE LOST ON POWER FAILURE * CMOS SURVIVES COMPUTER SHUTDOWN WHY ARE CMOS SETTINGS NOT LOST? * THE CMOS BATTERY * PROVIDES POWER DURING SHUTDOWN * PRESERVES CMOS CONFIGURATION * IF BATTERY DIES, CMOS CONFIGURATIONS WILL BE LOST THE SYMPTOMS ARE * LOW BATTERY=SLOW CLOCK * DEAD BATTERY= CHECKSUM ERROR DURING BOOT * CHECK CHECKSUM ERROR * BIOS WILL USE SETTINGS IN ROM FLASHING THE BIOS MAKING CHANGES TO THE BIOS * ARE PERMANENT * CANNOT BE DELETED * THEY CAN BE CHANGED BY NEW MOTHERBOARD OR FLASH THE BIOS * FIRMWARE/ NOT HARD/SOFTWARE * EEPROM * NEW BIOS/ DOWNLOAD A COPY CLIP 1.02 IRQ * INTERRUPT REQUEST * COMMUNICATION CHANNEL FROM HARDWARE DEVICE TO CPU * EACH DRIVE HAS IT’S OWN IRQ CHANNEL MOST COMMON IRQ CONFLICTS * IRQ3-COMP2, COMP4 * IRQ4-COMP1, COM3 * IRQ5-LPT2 OR SOUNDCARD * IRQ7-LPT1 (PRINTER) IO ADDRESS * INPUT/OUTPUT ADDRESS * HARDWARE DEVICE ASSIGNED ADDRESS * CPU SENDS INSTRUCTIONS TO ADDRESS * DEVICE LISTENS FOR ADDRESS * I/O ADDRESS SIMILAR TO DEVICE NAME * CPU COMMUNICATES WITH HARDDRIVE * USES HARD DRIVE’S I/O ADDRESS * HARD
I didn’t get one until my second year in middle school. I knew what a computer was, just was not able to experience what it could do or what it was capable of. Knowing that all of my friends had a computer of some sort it made me feel kind of left out, because when I’d hear them talk about how fast and cool their computers were. I felt like I wasn’t able to join the conversation for I truly didn’t know much of PCs. Except for word processing and mouse clicking, besides there’s not much to talk about there.
Microsoft was formed as a partnership in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen, they started out as a small company and they envisioned that every home would eventually have a desktop computer (Microsoft, 2013). Little did they know how their little company would “take off” and revolutionize the world of computers and help put computers in virtually every home and business. Microsoft has even reached out globally, I have seen versions of windows in a third world country where there is barely any infrastructure. Although it was an older version of windows than what we use today it is still windows none-the-less. Gates and Allen’s vision starts to become a reality in 1980 when they enlist Steve Ballmer to help run the company.
When iTunes came about, it offered a simpler way to play and listen to music on a computer. In October 2001, the iPod was introduced. It wasn’t the first digital music player with a hard drive to hit the market, but Apple’s use of scroll-wheel interface along with its smaller size made the iPod a success where other players were not. The iPod became a smash success when Apple added a Windows version of it and of iTunes. The Apple Company also experienced some dramatic failures, such as The Lisa and the Newton.
Nuclear fission produces no greenhouse emissions (Alexander 1). This is also good for our atmosphere (Alexander 1). As nuclear energy is produced, there are no sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides being produced with it, unlike the burning of fossil fuels (Rastogi 1). These oxides can cause acid rain which is very bad for the environment
Some of these machines may be just under 2TB or up to 40TB. With port replication and add-on hardware drive controller cards there really isn’t a limit on storage capacity. Is there any fault tolerance (such as RAID) built into a NAS device? RAID 50 is fairly stable if set-up correctly but RAID 10 has been declared as one of the best setups because even if more drives fail at one time there will be no data loss. Are management features available?
In the days of the initial electronic computing, software design was tantamount with joining wires to plugs. No layered architecture was in existence, so programming a computer was a huge achievement. Von Neumann architecture have come to be the norm in stored program computers, and these systems have come to be known as von Neumann systems. (Null, L., & Lobur, J., 2003). In this architecture, various tasks are founded on binary instructions that are taken from a storage device.
At the time of the case, the company relies on an out-of-date operating system MS-DOS for its store terminals and has no full-time network in place across stores. In the short term, the going MS-DOS based system seems to be working perfectly without any issues since it has been in
Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order with a worst case performance of constant time. Strictly speaking, modern types of DRAM are therefore not random access, as data is read in bursts, although the name DRAM / RAM has stuck. However, many types of SRAM, ROM, OTP, and NOR flash are still random access even in a strict sense. RAM is often associated with volatile types of memory (such as DRAM memory modules), where its stored information is lost if the power is removed. Many other types of non-volatile memory are RAM as well, including most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash.
Steven Michael Stepien TB143 Week 2 6/25/2011 HISTORY OF INTEL CPUs USED IN PCs That was the year Intel created the 8086, a 3-micron chip chugging along at 4.77MHz, while later versions would run at up to 10MHz. The 8086 had just 29,000 transistors, which was still nearly four times as many as the 8085 released in 1976, and was Intel's first 16-bit microprocessor and responsible for kicking off the 16-bit era (note that the 8086 wasn't the first 16-bit chip). Backwards compatibility with software written for the 8008, 8080, and 8085, and the ability to address 1MB of memory natively made the 8086 a near instant success. Intel entertained the computing world with the 80286 in 1982, a 1.5-micron part with a mind-boggling 134,000 transistors and 16MB of addressable memory. The first 286 pedaled along at 6MHz and, like the original 8086, would later double in speed.