Humankind is divided into nations each possessing a distinctive character and separate identity. This is why a higher loyalty attaches to the nation. Hegel argued that the organic society is an expression of universal wills for example Volkism where people are bound by a sense of being one. Secondly Conservative nationalism is concerned with maintaining unity, authority and social stability and an example of this is Disraeli who appealed to the national instincts of the people by appealing to the idea of one nation to prevent social disorder. Patriotism and nationalism give a sense of identity and belonging and helps maintain authority and social order.
TO WHAT EXTENT IS NATIONALISM A SINGLE DOCTRINE? WRITTEN BY RICHARD ROBSON Nationalism has been strongly divided, mainly by the ideas of liberalism, conservatism, expansionism and anti-colonialism. These strands of nationalism have advocated differing forms of nationalism, with liberals and anti-colonialists stressing political nationalism, and conservative nationalists and expansionist nationalists stressing the importance of cultural nationalism. Nevertheless, nationalism can be said to be a single coherent doctrine as all forms of nationalism place the nation as the core unit of political control. The nation is therefore key to political organisation.
By combining the doctrines of government by consent and constitutionalism, modern liberals have found a way of reconciling effective government with the right and freedoms of both the individual and intermediate groups. This effects the policies of the other mainstream parties as it provides a more secure relationship within society leading the other parties to follow this. Classical liberals are largely inspired by the philosophy of John Stuart mill. Mill described the scope of liberty as “absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects, practical or speculative, scientific moral or theological….” Mill believed that freedom would maximise human progress by promoting innovations, creativity and self-fulfilment. This shows that Mill saw humans as creative individuals thus leading to an interest of tolerance as a political virtue i.e.
How does nationalism lead to imperialism? Nationalism is the loyalty and devotion to one’s nation. In order to achieve nationalism, the country must have language, territory, literature, and history in common. Populism was based on people's dissatisfaction of the government. It appealed to the interests of the general people, and usually went against the interests of those in power.
The federalism created by the founding fathers differs, as the essay title suggests, in many ways to that of todays. This is most obviously the case when it comes to influence and power. The early federal system devised by the Founding Fathers and regulated by the constitution was a ‘duel federal system.’ What this means is that the national (federal) government and the states both had separate spheres of authority and worked independently side by side. This made the two levels of government ‘equals’ and ‘sovereign’ within their own jurisdiction as there was little interference from one to the other (Miroff, Seidelman, Swanstrom, 2002, p418). The U.S constitution outlines which areas are to belong: exclusively to the federal government; make treaties, coin money, regulate interstate and foreign commerce; to both the
‘The modern conservative party is pragmatic not ideological’ discuss (30 marks) Conservatism, like many other political ideologies has different factions within it. Traditional conservatism, especially paternalist conservatism very much favours a pragmatic approach. this is the belief that behaviour should be shaped in accordance with practical circumstances and goals rather than principles, beliefs or ideological objectives, indeed Michael Oakshott specified that true conservatism should avoid adopting any sense of direction However with the introduction of the liberal new right under Thatcher and Keith Joseph, they envisaged the creation of a society of free individuals, with wide access to ownership of property and shares in industry and in which each individual was responsible for his or her own welfare, breaking the tradition of pragmatism within the Conservative party. Traditional conservatives have tended to avoid adopting fixed principles and have opposed political movements based on fixed principles. In fact Conservatism has often been described as chameleon like, in that it changes its appearance according to the dominant political environment at a given time.
However, the New Right incorporates neo-liberalism, which is a moderation of liberalism that supports free market economics and the minimal role of the state. But it also incorporates neo-conservatism which contrasts from neo-liberalism as it has a strong stance on law and order and the authoritarian state, focusing on nationalism. Firstly the New Right can be said to internally coherent in a political sense and in terms of the compatibility of its goals. All members of the New Right are capable of accepting a strong but minimal state as neo-conservatives believe in an authoritarian strong state in which they prevent excessive freedom due to their view on human nature, but not excessive state so there is not a dependency culture created. The neo liberals also believe that there should be minimal state but in an economic sense, and this is in order to allow capitalism to flourish without excessive restraints and laws imposed on business, and this is to encourage competition in the market to improve efficiency and profit.
But being an American doesn’t mean only to live within the boundaries of the United States or simply holding a U.S. citizenship. American people are not defined by “blood and soil” but more likely as Teddy Roosevelt said” Americanism is a matter of the spirit and of the soul.” As a diverse country, what unite the disparate people who make up our country are common constitutional principles interpreted by the political culture, which is defined as broadly shared value, beliefs, and attitudes about how the government should function. American political culture emphasizes the values of liberty, equality, and democracy, and that is what sets our country apart from others. As David Miller, a leading liberal nationalist, emphasizes, a shared sets of characteristics constituting a national culture is a necessary feature of national identity. “ As with many other nations in the world, America has to bear the brunt of national identity erosion in the face of globalization.
The controversy of the argument was on the basis that, “there was an inherent connection between the states and the preservation of individual liberty, which is the end of any legitimate government.” Their own argument have invariably created a national government instead of a federal government. This is because “the federal form, which regards the Union as a confederacy of sovereign states, instead of which, they have framed a national government, which regards the Union as a consolidation of the states.” Anti-federalists were against constructing a new constitution and they agreed that without valid amendments the constitution would give the government too much power. This power would then lead to confusion according to the (Centinel 1787) “ The new constitution instead of being panacea or cure of every grievance so delusively represented by its advocated will be found upon examination like Pandora’s box replete with every
In other words, adopting a policy based on the principle of accepting the idea of the multiplicity of ideological doctrines, and understanding between the two camps concerning the international issues. The Two-Party System in America America has a stable two-party system that first emerged in the late 18th century as a conflict between Federalists led by Alexander Hamilton and the Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson. Basically, the roots of the conflict between the two parties were due to the differences in ideologies and views. Federalists wanted a powerful national government to push for aggressive economic development. Whereas, Republicans wanted a small national government to leave the citizens mostly free of taxation or government interference.