Seen in social contract theory; government is the solution to problem of disorder. Example: Woodrow Wilson’s support for first world government ‘the League of Nations in 1919. Liberals recognise that law must be enforced, endorsing the principle of collective security between a number of states. Second stems from Liberal commitment to individual and individualism (equal moral worth). Although they endorse idea of self-determination, does not mean they entitle nations to treat people however they choose.
In this essay, I will show that democratic peace theory which state that liberal democracies do not go to war against each another provide reasonable arguments in promoting democracy to nondemocratic states. Democratic proponents emphasize that the shared norm between liberal states is one of the factor that ensure peace among them. Besides that, citizens play a major role in declaring war by liberal democracies which result in a lower frequency of wars between the nations. Next, declaring war is complex and democratic leaders will not opt for it unless inevitable. Firstly, democratic peace is able to promote greater stability in the world as a result of the shared norms between liberal democracies.
In this respect, the main goal of liberalism is to promote a laissez-faire society and their main goal is preservation of human rights and freedoms. Secondly, liberalism aimed at ensuring that there is democracy in the society whereby the power of the monarchs and the other political class is limited. To achieve their goals, liberals enlightened members of the society about their rights and freedoms and in countries like France, Germany, and Italy liberals organized for revolutions that removed those leaders who were dictators in these countries. In addition to this, liberals championed for the rights of the minority in the society. A good example of a liberal government is the federal government of the United States of America (Jayapalan, 2009).
Is nationalism inherently xenophobic? Illustrate your argument with specific examples Taking the broad definition that nationalism is the ‘goal of national flourishing’ (Nathanson 1997) it is necessary to break down this very broad concept by looking at the conditions in which nationalism is xenophobic. By looking at the foundations in which nationalism is often built on, and in combination with the so called ‘national mission’ (Tuminez 2000: 9) it should become evident whether nationalism can exist without xenophobia. The foundations that nationalism is built on can be predominantly ethnic/cultural ties or they can be civic and more often than not are a mixture of them both. As I shall explore, nations built on predominantly ethnic ties are more susceptible to influencing factors which create a superior self-image and in turn an aggressive national mission.
They encourage the idealistic thoughts and solutions toward international issues to solve present and future social, economic, and political issues. Though the concept sounds great, it’s not all plausible for the fact that the U.N. enforces financial pressure upon nations such as the United States, Japan, and Germany, because the organization’s regular and peacekeeping budget continues to increase at a rapid rate. To the U.N., the contributions by the U.S. for these two budgets are considered mandatory and not voluntary, which can lead to individuals of that particular state purposing constructive and realistic ideas that would push for secession from the U.N. for such use and abuse of the U.S. funding, particularly in the United States’ current economic recession. Idealism is not completely dead in the international level of politics today. When the occasion calls for it, it can still become effective, as it did with Nelson Mendela’s persistent quest for equality of blacks and whites in South Africa, which is a reminder of the noble potential of idealism in the international
Liberalism and realism are the two most dominant ideologies in international politics. Realism is the older ideology, and dates back to ancient Greece,1 while liberalism has its roots mainly in enlightenment thinkers.2 Both ideologies are based on very fundamental assumptions about human nature. These assumptions lead to their respective moral and societal values. Realism is generally pessimistic and believes the focus of global politics is in individual states fighting for security and power; liberalism is generally optimistic and believes that international peace and cooperation can be achieved through institutions that create cohesion between people and states.3 Obviously, both ideologies have very legitimate reasons for their global outlooks, but both cannot explain all international politics on their own. There are various exceptions and anomalies that defy the beliefs of both, which is to be expected.
In doing this Ban Ki-moon and other liberals believe global wealth and resources can be matched with global need, and solve international problems like the outbreak of Ebola, poverty and so forth. Therefore interdepndance can lead to some sort of peace and these problems will not esculate for the worse in liberal perspective. Unity is something Ban Ki-moon also touches on, for a start this is precisly what the UN is all about ‘Uniting the Nations of the world’ this is a very liberal concept as Realism is all about states being selfish,self interested and intrustable, Liberality
Why Democracy? Preserving Human Right: Democracies attempted to preserve individual freedom and to promise equality of opportunity. The U.S. Declaration of Independence expressed the belief that “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” The declarations added that the people may change or abolish the government if it interferes with those rights. People once thought that the greatest obstacles to individual freedom and equality were political.
Introduction Nationalism The concept “nationalism” has different meanings relating to various types of analysis: nationalism as an ideology, a movement, the process of “nation” and “nation-state” building, and an individual’s political orientation. However what is important of nationalism (then any other political ideology) is that the origin of an ideology is the intersection of history and politics, in other words, the origin of an ideology is the mirror image of the identity of its subject, whether it is the human individual, the social class or the nation. Therefore examining origins of ideology require the use of history, which gives the historical character of nationalism. The opinion of national origin lives at the heart of the nationalist claim to power, claiming to define the truth of its authority and the legitimacy of its struggle for freedom and independence. However the origin of nationalisms is questionable in terms of historicity of the nation so that one can establish its authority and legitimacy as a political subject.
Rawls also speaks to the issues of social cooperation, which is governed by publically recognized rules that once again, focus on political practicability and the rational advantages that would extend from this cooperation. He believes that ultimately, justice as fairness is the outgrowth of a political or practicable conception that is rooted in the concept of society as a fair system of cooperation between citizens as free and equal persons. Rawls closes by assessing a liberal view, advanced by Kant and Mill, that assesses social stability from a viewpoint of a political doctrine, which holds that we should champion a free democratic culture with conflicting and incommensurable conceptions of the good affirmed by its