The main focus of liberalism is liberty and freedom, there are two types of liberalism classical and new liberalism, this therefore determines the type of liberty they want to achieve. Firstly liberals have a fear that some potential consequences of government such as no legitimate authority, the tendency for power to become concentrated in too few hands and the democratic systems may simply become the tyranny of the majority. Through this fear they offer a solution through the liberal constitution, it defines the right of citizens which could be a safeguard against encroachments by governments, distributes power among different institutions of government to prevent the concentration of power. These are only a few of many. By combining the doctrines of government by consent and constitutionalism, modern liberals have found a way of reconciling effective government with the right and freedoms of both the individual and intermediate groups.
Both anarchist and liberals hold the individual to be of paramount importance. They assert that individual sovereignty should be at the heart of any society and that no restrictions on personal autonomy should exist. Furthermore, both ideologies share the belief that constraint on individual autonomy is evil, regardless of its origins. Anarchists have asserted that such restrictions are imposed by a sovereign state as a coercive and compulsory body. Liberals do not entirely reject this position, and therefore have an anti-statist vein.
Liberalism v. Fascism Shawna Sirianni Hawaii Pacific University Abstract On the surface, few political ideals could be further apart than liberalism and fascism. One is centered upon a totalitarian government that controls nearly every aspect of life, while the other seeks to edify the individual and provide equal opportunity for all. Looking deeper however, we find that the motivations for each ideal are similar, even though their means of achieving their desired outcomes are quite different. Liberals and fascists seem to have little in common. Liberalism promotes equity and opportunity for the individual while fascism is all about the greater good and support of the establishment.
Conservatism is seen to favour pragmatism over principle through aspects of classical conservatism, one nation conservatism and Thatcherism. Pragmatism is seen as dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations. To prefer pragmatism over principle, is to prioritise practical considerations over ideological values. In the context of conservative ideology, this means to sacrifice core beliefs of individualism, authoritarianism, capitalism, and tradition and Parliamentary sovereignty, in favour of political and electoral considerations. The Conservative party has embraced many different and contrasting ideological policies, from Toryism to the New Right to Thatcherism to One Nation conservatism.
Has Liberalism betrayed its classical Liberal Principles? Liberalism has manifested itself in two distinct forms, Classical Liberalism and Modern Liberalism. Classical liberals are a tradition within Liberalism that seek to maximise the realms of unconstrained individual actions; typically by establishing a minimal state and a reliance on market economics. In contrast, Modern liberals provide a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development. Classical liberals have been defined by the desire to minimise government interference in the lives of citizens, they feel betrayed by modern liberals as they are associated with welfare provision, intervention and economic management.
Article VII states that certain individuals get certain power- to a Classical Liberal power (in theory) should be distributed and shared; a higher power leads to different classes (like the bourgeois) or to more government, this is not a Classical Liberal ideology. Lastly Article VIII benefits the people but it is meant for the “common good”- not the individual. A Classical Liberal believes it should be all about the individual and that is how we achieve true economic prosperity for all. Classical Liberalism is not an outdated ideology in fact it is still used today. For instance: a Liberal (or Democrat) still believes in small government as well as thinking about the individual and constantly striving to make things better.
Patriotism and nationalism give a sense of identity and belonging and helps maintain authority and social order. It prevents social conflict by binding irrational dependent individuals together with a shared set of values, whist transcending the natural rights of the individuals. Lastly conservative nationalism is very defensive in the belief in a special nationality which is being eroded by another. This is different to Liberal nationalism because Liberals believe that nation states can live together without the other being compromised. This is highlighted with UKIP arguing that the EU erodes our principle of independence which links back to the idea of
The idea of freedom and pursuing democracy is especially pushed within classical liberalism and this can be seen through thinkers such as John Locke who envisioned individuals as being free and equal, having given consent to the government and therefore authority deriving from them not the people above. The French liberal Benjamin Constant said that the main enemies of liberty were over “powerful governments” and J.S Mill backed this point up with his view that the only purpose which power can rightfully be exercised over a member of a civilised society, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. Through the ideas of these thinkers within classical liberalism it is clear that because democracy defends freedom, it is promoted by liberalism as it allows citizens to protect themselves from tyrannical governments and not be repressed by the state. Furthermore, one can see that through democracy a political consensus is promoted which leads to political stability, if not everyone is given an equal chance to voice their opinion and views then this would go against the idea of giving the people free speech and steering away from an over paternalistic government. Indeed, it can be
Hence, most people believe that the two parties are similar enough that they are practically the same. Upon closer examination into the history of the Democratic and the Republican parties, we are able to determine that the political philosophies from which they originate have completely opposing ideologies. The ideologies of the Democratic Party derive from the ideology of the classical liberalism philosophy. The most prevailing idea of classical liberalism is that the government's role is to guard the individual's natural rights because individuals are the primary unit of society (Franks 27). According to John Locke, a philosopher who contributed to classical liberalism's vitality, the protection of individuals' "life, liberty, and property" is their natural rights (Jones 227).
To what extent has Modern Liberalism departed from the ideas of Classical Liberalism? Modern Liberalism first emerged after around 1870 as a reaction to further industrialisation and the problems that came with it. Whilst having some contrasting views, Modern Liberals still share some ideology with that of the more Classical Liberals. Classical Liberals view the individual as a self-reliant and self-interested being who merely seeks pleasure from life. Classical Liberals were largely influenced by Jeremy Bentham and his idea of utilitarianism, they argue that individuals act in a way that will gain them ultimate pleasure and happiness, of which they alone judge the quality and are free from any paternal authority.