Henry VIII vs. John Calvin in the Protestant Reformation In the sixteenth century, stood the reformation of the Catholic Church in Western Europe. While the main focus was an internal renovation of the church, the outcome was much different than expected; the reformation led to a revolt against and an abandonment of principal Christian belief. The difference in the view and act of oneself was different from individual to individual during the reformation. While Calvin left for Geneva in 1536 from France because of the fear of persecution for the publically spread beliefs of his about the Church to the people, Henry VIII had manipulated the church for a way to receive a new wife in hopes for his first son. Different motivation stands for each of these people in what they did for the reformation.
Between 1547 and 1558 England was almost torn apart by religious revolution. Assess the validity of this claim. (45 marks) A religious revolution is the complete change and reform of religious organisation. This is something that arguably occurred in England between 1547 and 1558, during which time there were two monarchs – Edward VI and Mary I, with opposing religious beliefs. During Tudor England, religious identity was extremely important, and therefore religious ‘revolution’ was obviously going to affect the people and the country significantly.
Gods Jury shows what happened in the past during the inquisition and the protestants reformation. The inquisition was something that was started by the pope in 1231 and this was first which was started to get rid of heretics, eventually the spanish inquisition was started because of the protestant reformation. In the 16th century the protestant reformation was started unofficially it wasn't until Martin Luther posted the 95 theses. this officially sparked the start of the protestant reformation. With this spark there was a rise of many other protestant religions such as Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, and etc.
How protestant was England by 1540? Break with Rome, nature of the Church in England? * Henrician reformation was essentially an act of state motivated by political, personal and financial motives * The road towards the break with Rome & the Royal Supremacy had allowed evangelicals such as Crammer and Cromwell to rise to prominence, promoting Henry’s new policies. * Catholics still worshipped at a high level * Henry remained a catholic at heart * Comes to a confusing situation * Henry doesn’t show a clear understand of where he stands on religious fronts * Causes struggles in court Was there a move towards Protestantism in the years 1534-39 * The break with Rome and the royal supremacy had severed English connections with the papacy and removed Roman influence from English shores * English Church had been essentially created but papal authority was destroyed and payments were sent to the king * Encouraged more radical reformers abroad * Little alterations on popular worship The Factional struggle: evangelical’s v conservatives * Thomas crammer had risen from relative obscurity to the highest ecclesiastical position in England * On the temporal side Thomas Cromwell had shown his worth in masterminding the Royal Supremacy The Ten articles * see table The bishop’s book * see table Cromwell and the English Bible * both the ten articles and the bishops book can be regarded as partial successes for the evangelical faction at court, Cromwell in particular * neither offered a definitive statement of protestant belief * Cromwell used his friendship and trust with Henry to further the evangelical position * He maintained episcopal appointments to ensure that reformers were preferred * He organised preaching campaigns against Catholic practises such as the worshipping of
By 1531 the Schmalkaldic League was set up as a united defence alliance by protestant princes in response to Charles’s threat of eradicating Lutheranism. Despite the failure of the league itself in 1547, it is considered a success in the way that Lutheranism was now exclusively established and was growing ever more powerful, and could not be eradicated by a brute force. By the end of the Reformation in 1555 Lutheranism was finally recognised as a valid religion by Charles due to the previous treaty the Peace of Augsburg which was primarily a princely movement. The princes were significant in creating an atmosphere in which Lutheranism was successful in that they were able to respond well to Luther’s theological ideas. The German Princes established a national figurehead who they could look to for ideology and bravery to drive the Reformation.
Topic: Analyze various ways in which the Thirty years’ war (1618-1648) represented a turning point in European history. The Thirty years War was a religious war between Catholic League and Protestant Union. The war started from 1618 until 1648. This war represented the forces that were violence toward the changing religious status of European. There were four phase in the Thirty years war which solve the political problem between Bourbon and Hapsburg.
He was the creator of the 95 Theses in 1517. Martin Luther allegedly posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517. His goal was to stir debate among theologians primarily around the issue of indulgences-payments to the Roman Catholic Church in return for official pardons for one’s sins and grants of salvation in the afterlife. Because of the printing press, the 95 Theses were known throughout Germany in a fortnight and throughout Europe in a month. (Document D).
Luther’s first step was to attempt reform within the Catholic church was posting “The 95 Theses on the Power of Indulgences” on the door of the church of Wittenberg to directly protest the selling of indulgences. Condemning indulgences was, in fact, condemning the pope, and his authority to grant pardons to the Catholics. Opposing indulgences was not the end of opposing the pope, however, when the pope sent Luther a letter telling him to take back his words or be excommunicated, Luther burned the letter publicly. Eventually when Luther was excommunicated, he continued to spread his heretical ideas especially through his writings, some of which included “On Christian Liberty” which led the peasant class to believe Lutheranism would lift their oppression and “An Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation” which invited Christian princes to take over the wealth of the German monasteries. Luther needed the support of the masses to bring about his reform.
Martin Luther Timeline 1517 – Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Castle church. The Theses contained attacks on the papal abuse and the abuse of indulgences. 1518 – After Luther refused to take back what he had said, Pope Leo X restated the Church’s beliefs on indulgences and also criticized Luther’s ideas. 1519 – Luther wrote to Pope Leo X, making sure he understood it was not his intention to question the power of the Pope or Church. The Luther-Rome dispute began to grow.
The Catholic Church Why did the Catholics become angry at the Catholic Church in the 1300s? During the Reformation problems happen in the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church was in chaos. They weren’t focus on people’s lives; they were focused on money and affairs. Martin Luther and John Calvin were in the Reformation they were determined to reform the Catholic Church.