All in all, these two major movements produced a new understanding of society's relationships--first with God, and then with government. Shaping new attitudes was a first step towards what will eventually become the struggle for Independence and the American Revolution. However, most of the ideas would perhaps have remained theoretical if not for the wars that swept North America and increased tensions with the crown. In the early 1750s, French expansion into the Ohio River valley repeatedly brought France into armed conflict with the British colonies and the Seven Year War broke out. The French lost the war and in 1763 the Treaty of
As established by Henry VIII in 1550 to distance himself from the Catholic Church and the Pope (and make it possible for him to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon), the official religion of England at the beginning of the Victorian period, circa 1850, was that of the Anglican Church, known as the Church of England. Nonetheless, there were other religions that were quite important in the country, mainly Catholicism and Methodism, which was greatly known thanks to John Wesley and grew under Victorian times. There was also a movement of anti-Church, notably with the Age of Reason of Tom Paine, in 1794, and the apparition of spiritualism. The initiators of such movements where referred to as dissenters, and there were many dissented groups at the time. The Victorian period, up until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, was therefore a time of religious confusion, but also, as we will see, of great charity, as well as of birth of new beliefs.
The Dutch Republic, where Locke spent time, had been founded as a secular state which would allow religious differences. This was a reaction to Catholic persecution of Protestants. Once the Calvinist Church gained power, however, they began persecuting other sects. In France, religious conflict had been temporarily quieted by the edict of Nantes. But in 1685, the year in which Locke wrote the First Letter concerning religious toleration, Louis XIV had revoked the Edict of Nantes, and the Huguenots were being persecuted and forced to emigrate on mass.
Decades of conflict followed, starting with the revolt as a result of the Stamp Act in 1765, leading to the eruption of war in 1775. The search for independence was a result of political, social, and economic factors such as the use of America as merely a subject land, made for the purpose of English wealth, the overall lack of representation the colonists had in government, and the emerging liberal and republican ideas as a result of the Enlightenment. Tension between England and the colonists stirred a hunger for liberty and a desire for freedom and was brought about by radical reforms, military battles, and the forming of a Declaration of Independence and a Constitution. The political aspect of the American Revolution was a result of Britain’s suddenly tightened control over the governing of the colonies. When they won the French and Indian War, England had to make a few reforms.
HISTORY Level 3 90658 Examine a significant issue in the context of change, in an essay Credit: Five England 1558-1667 In England, in the period 1558-1667, there were a number of significant historical situations that influenced Tudor-Stuart society. Such an historical situation was: • Civil War in Charles I reign. Describe Charles I’s role in the deepening political and religious crises up to mid-1642. To what extent was the outbreak of the Civil War a British problem rather than an English government problem?. Suggested Essay Plan • Land and religious issues triggered action in Scotland in 1639.
This uncertainty at the head of the church created divisions in Christendom that would last for a long time, divisions that would sow the seeds of the reformation, increase strength of national churches and lead the way to the creation of The Church of England. The crisis of Church in the later medieval ages was one of role, increasingly secular government was coming to the forefront of administration, where before the Church ‘had fulfilled many of the functions of the modern state’ The 18 years of Pope Innocent III’s pontificate is viewed by many as the height of the papacy in the medieval era. Innocent believed that the Pope controlled the spiritual world of man in Gods stead. He realised that to do this the Pope would have to have control of the temporal world as well. Innocent pursued these claims very successfully and Margaret Deanesly argues that ‘he was a greater force in the secular politics of Europe than either emperor or national king’.
In the 1960’s the traditional Christian Church was going through massive change. Society was dealing from post WW2 feminism, Vietnam War, civil rights, teenager and hippy culture, sexual liberation and a rejection of traditional sources of authority, for example church teachings. Martin Luther King’s legacy in the 1960’s set the scene for a revolution in civil rights and sexual freedom and therefore challenging the traditional legalist approach. This radical change in society underlies Situation Ethics which was part of a general move for people to have greater autonomy and freedom. The concept of situation ethics was first introduced by Fletcher in 1966, in his book ‘Situation Ethics’, expressing his beliefs against antinomian and legalism approaches.
His marriage, on June 13, 1525, to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, began the tradition of clerical marriage within several Christian traditions. Martin Luther was one of the most influential and compelling figures of Church history. Some of the most fundamental tenets of the Catholic Church were called into question by Luther, and lead to the greatest religious revolt in Church history, now known as the Protestant Reformation. Who Was Martin Luther? Martin Luther was born to Hans and Margaretta Luther on November 10, 1483 in Eisleben, Germany.
After naming himself head of the Anglican church, king Henry VII had a total control over its money and services, and in order to increase the royal income, the king made the selfish decision of bringing down the monasteries, one of the great charitable works of the church to help the poor, that resulted in the economic change of a social unrest and then division. Thus, the reformation is considered as a long-term cause for playing an important role in starting the civil war. On one other part, another leading factor appeared in 1603 with the reign of James I. James’ fervent belief in the devine rights of the king made him think that he is allowed to involve himself in all situations even the smallest one, which was not acceptable by the parliament leading to many disagreements. After the king’s trial in 1621 to marry his son Charles to the catholic daughter of the king of Spain and considering it an attempt to restore Catholicism in England, The problems had raised and the relationship between the two parties was never mended. On a third part, one final main reason of the civil war was revealed after Charles I, son of James I and the heir of the throne, took control of England in 1625.
What role did the New Model Army play in directing the political position of the Parliamentarians during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1642-60)? Discuss with reference to any two documents in Chapter 3 of the Anthology. The English Civil War, in one way or another, was a response to the aftermath of the Reformation which left behind political unrest and separate religious groups with indifferences and nonconformity. The Civil War affected everyone from commoners and the up and coming rising middle classes to the ruling aristocracy and Parliament. Parliament would eventually go on to create the New Model Army in response to events that surrounded Charles I, personal rule and his marriage to a catholic Queen Henrietta Maria, the daughter of Henry IV of France.