Another important evolutionary concept in Bowlby’s theory was the idea of monotropy where infants form an attachment to one primary caregiver which is usually the biological mother. Bowlby thought that this process of attachment took place during a critical period, which was the first three years of the child’s life and that if an attachment wasn’t formed during this time, there would be no later attachment at all. Bowlby also considered some more emotional concepts in his theory as well, one being that as a result of the relationship between the baby and the caregiver, an internal working model would be developed by the child & this includes whether they view themselves as loveable or not etc. which would them provide an important template for later relationships which is referred to as the continuity
The biosocial explanation of gender was advanced by Money and Ehrhardt, who proposed that there are a number of critical events that affect the early development of a child. These events begin before birth in the form of maternal hormones and genes. However, from birth onwards, social factors also begin to play an important part. Once a child is labelled as a boy or a girl, they are treated very differently and these social factors interact with the biological ones to determine the child’s gender identity. In the majority of cases, the child’s biological sex matches their gender and there are no problems.
John Bowlby adopted the family systems approach theory in relation to his attachment theory. Bowlby’s theories focused more on attachment styles whereas Bowen’s theory was centered specifically on the family as an organization. Bowlby theorized that children have the most successful development within an extended family system. He also believed that the child’s interactions with their caregivers within the first few years of their lives shaped their views of themselves and interactions with others (Blewitt & Broderick, 2015, p. 117). Bowlby in particular believed that the family system was important for a child’s growth and development.
From the moment of conception a child gets its genetic makeup from the parents, thus already beginning their impact on the child. Parents give a child its first view of the world and they often shape many of his or her values and beliefs, while also providing the basic necessities that a child needs to survive. Peers, however, are often said to have more influence on a child’s development than parents. The challenges faced in a social environment, one where children are often either accepted or ridiculed, shape how a person may behave for the rest of their lives. A third concept in influence on child development is the impact of culture and how it supports parental and/or peer influence.
He also states that infants will form one bond that is more important than all others (Montrophy) and this is linked to the continuity hypothesis. Because attachment is innate Bowlby believed that there is a ‘sensitive period’ for forming attachments and he believes that the first attachment must be achieved by 7 months of age or it will become ever more difficult to form an attachment. He also believed that infants have built in mechanisms for encouraging care-giving behaviour from parents (social releasers). The ‘cute baby face’, facial expressions (such as smiling) and crying encourage contact. There are many studies and experiments that are in support of Bowlby’s theory of attachment, one is the study conducted by Hazan and Shaver (1987) in which they gave adult participants 2 questionnaires.
However, research shows that fathers reinforce development when they take a vigorous roles early in the lives of their children. There is no right or wrong way for them to be involved as long as they show love and support. Although mothers may use more methods of parenting and both parents may have different styles of parenting, their children can benefit from them both. For example: A father may capture his child’s attention with the
Case workers, child welfare services, and the psychological community alike have taken an interest as to the impact sibling separation has on an individual child. Sibling relationships are the most enduring of interpersonal ties and serve as important contexts for individual development (East & Khoo, 2005). The researchers wanted only to observe the effect that sibling relationships have on adjustment during tenure in foster care and other factors. A broad sample pool was used and factors such as age spacing, initial placement, duration of maltreatment, kinship vs. certified foster home, caregiver language, and disability were used as elimination (control) factors. This particular study used 78 sibling pairs (after elimination).
Nature vs. Nurture Sociology 201 April 6, 2013 When the rearing of children is observed by outside people, they look to see how the child was raised. Whether they were coddled by the parents over every little thing they do, or if they were left to grow up with just the world influences around them, to form them into the child they are. The nature vs. nurture debate has been one of the biggest debates out there. People feel very strongly on one side or the other. I will in this paper describe a little bit of both sides of the debate, and then give my opinion on it.
Bowlby’s primary thesis is that the success of all relationships or attachments in life is dependent of the success of the first one, namely, of the bond between the infant or small child and his mother or primary caregiver. Attachment behaviors begin early in life. This narrow age limit is often called the critical period. It has become more and more apparent that a healthy attachment is most important in human development. If a child has a secure attachment, he will grow up to view the world as a safe place and will be able to develop other emotions.
Bowlby also suggests that there is a best time to form an attachment, this is called the sensitive period where infants are most sensitive to development of attachments and Bowlby would suggest that this is when the child is 3-6 months old. However, attachment can still take place at other times but it becomes increasingly difficult. Attachment acts as a secure base for exploration, which influences independence rather than dependence. Bowlby argues that infants form a single special attachment with one particular attachment figure, usually the mother. This is called monotropy.