3.IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT * According to Darwin (1872) emotions have two purposes; Motivation & communication. The social learning theory by Bandura et al (1963) supports this as stated that, all behaviours are learned by observation and imitation by children, and learns by emotional responses of others whether it is the correct way or not. * Emotions are also linked to attachment and are needed in order to create a strong social bond between i.e. mother and child. Bowlby (1969) therefore supporting that emotional expression is important in children’s development as it effects other aspects of development in children.
Bowlby has the idea that attachment has evolved and it is innate as it increases the likelihood of survival and reproduction, he suggests that children are already born with this innate drive and that they were born to perform these behaviours and born to attain attachment. To enhance the survival of their offspring caregiving is also adaptive and we are born to care for our children. He suggests that infants were born with social releasers such as crying and smiling which encourage caregiving. Bowlby also suggests that there is a best time to form an attachment, this is called the sensitive period where infants are most sensitive to development of attachments and Bowlby would suggest that this is when the child is 3-6 months old. However, attachment can still take place at other times but it becomes increasingly difficult.
Bowlby believed that a mother has similar genetic coding that allows her to react instinctive to, and respond to her infants needs. Bowlby stated that the first attachment formed is the most important and he believed this should be the mother. He called this “monotrophy”. This attachment must be formed within a “critical period” in the infant’s early life for it to be effective. This first attachment is imperative to enable the child to go on and form other attachments and develop socially and emotionally.
Outline and Evaluate John Bowlbys evolutionary theory of attachment John Bowlby’s evolutionary theory was proposed in 1953 and suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed, to form attachments with others, because, this will help them to survive and reproduce. Whereas, failure to form attachments could lead to serious long term consequences for the child. The reason as to why Bowlby’s theory is evolutionary is because, in his view, attachment is a behavioural system that has evolved due to its survival value. There are a variety of main points suggested by Bowlby which make this theory so vital. Firstly, he imposed that the attachments are innate; i.e.
Introduction: How do parenting styles differentiate between children? Does the child’s gender affect the way parents raise them? What dictates the parenting approach that parents choose to implement? These questions are all socially significant because the way someone is raised helps develop them as a person. It helps create who you become.
He proposed a theory of continuation; individuals who are securely attached during infancy develop to be socially and emotionally competent in the future, on the other hand, insecurely attached children have more social and emotional difficulties later on in childhood and adulthood. The reason behind this is because the mother’s behaviour creates an internal working model of relationships that in effect leads the infants to expect the same in later relationships. According to Bowlby, children have an innate determination to become attached to a caregiver because it has long-term benefits as does Imprinting. This is because both attachment and imprinting ensures that a young child/animal stays close to a caregiver who can provide it with food, comfort and protection. In this way, attachment and imprinting are adaptive behaviours.
Explaining and Reflecting on the Development of Peer Relationships As I explain and reflect upon the development of peer relationships I am first going to discuss what I believe is the foundation for peer relationships… Attachments. Then move on to discuss aspects of these relationships and lightly talk about socialization’s role. One of the most vital aspects of development is a child’s attachment to their parents. Attachment is a connection or bond with a particular person. This type of bond is critical to an infant's development.
So, when an infant forms an attachment it is responding to the love and attention it has received, language comes from imitating the speech of others and cognitive development depends on the degree of stimulation in the environment and, more broadly, on the civilization within which the child is reared. Examples of an extreme nature positions in psychology include Bowlby's (1969) theory of attachment, which views the bond between mother and child as being an innate process that ensures survival”. (www.simplypsychology.org) According to this theory, it is the combination of societal and biological influences that affect behavior in our children. Since the brain is not fully developed at birth, the environment in which the child is exposed gives opportunity to further enhance or, consequently, inhibit many areas of development. Neurobiologist have found that early long term stress can actually change the brain functioning and, in turn, create an overly sensitive nervous system.
These relationships during childhood are likely to play an important part on how individuals develop through childhood and later life. Bowlby is a key figure in development of the of attachment theory. His theory suggests that the infant needs a secure base to explore from and return to. He defined a secure base as being a place where the infant can explore into the outside world and return to knowing that the mother figure will respond to the infant’s need for food, comfort and reassurance if distressed or fearful (Wood et. al., 2007).
His theory was based on the idea that attachment was an instinctive and evolutionary function in order to ensure the survival of the species. Therefore, attachment depends highly on the combination of nature and nurture. Infants combine instinct with learned behavior to acquire the ability to become aware of, “…continued existence of objects or persons when out of sight,” which allows them to, “…protest at separation and attempt to maintain proximity,”