Soil Erosion Essay

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SOIL EROSION Land is also a precious resource , needed for agriculture and occupation. Land is under pressure due to increasing population. Land for agriculture has to be fertile in order to be able to support a good crop. The fertility of land lies in the quality of the soil. Soil is a dynamic, non-renewable natural resource, which supports life on earth, in which many chemical, physical and biological activities go on constantly. Soil is formed as a result of weathering of rocks. Soil has many layers (soil horizons), the topmost layer is called the topsoil and is the most fertile. The removal of this topsoil is called soil erosion. Soil erosion is a geological process of soil degradation wherein soil particles are detached and transported by the various agents of erosion. These agents of erosion include water, wind, glaciers, and gravity. Soil erosion is a natural process, but becomes a problem when human activity causes it to occur much faster than under natural conditions. Types of soil erosion Water erosion Soil erosion by water is the result of rain detaching and transporting vulnerable soil is known as water erosion * Splash erosion: caused by falling torrential rain. The raindrops beat hard on the surface of the soil. * Sheet erosion: occurs with the uniform removal of a thin layer or ‘sheet’ of soil. Sloping land with shallow, loose topsoil overlying compact subsoil is the most susceptible. This type of erosion continuously makes the soil shallower and decreases crop yield. * Rill erosion : It involves the removal of soil by rainwater runoff through small finger-like channel. * Channel or gully erosion: occurs when the volume of concentrated run off increases and attains more velocity. The rills enlarge into gullies. At an advance stage, gullies result in ravines making the soil unfit for cultivation. Wind Erosion The other

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