Renal Function Tests Background: Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Renal tests can show how quickly body wastes are being removed and whether the kidneys are also leaking abnormal amounts of protein. In this practical serum creatinine, serum urea and urinary protein have been investigated. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, an important component of muscle. The production of creatinine depends on muscle mass, which varies very little.
bioloQuiz 9 Chapter 10 Question 1 Wastes are part of blood True False 2 points Question 2 A hematocrit is the % of ________________ 1. leukocytes 2. eythrocytes 3. platelets 4. clotting factors 2 points Question 3 Normal hemotocrit is ___% erythrocytes of total volume 1. 50 2. 40 3. 30 4. 45 2 points Question 4 The protein in blood that regulates osmotic pressure and pH is albumin True False 2 points Question 5 All of the following are PLASMA blood proteins EXCEPT 1. albumin 2. hemoglobin 3. fibrinogen 4. globulin 2 points Question 6 Which element in hemoglobin binds oxygen 1. calcium 2. zinc 3. iron 4. iodine 2 points Question 7 How many red blood cells in blood and how many white blood cells?
Athletes using EPO do so to encourage their bodies to produce higher than normal amounts of red blood cells to enhance performance. Synthetic oxygen carriers. These are chemicals that have the ability to carry oxygen. Two examples are: •HBOCs (hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers) •PFCs (perfluorocarbons) Synthetic oxygen carriers have a legitimate medical use as emergency therapy. It is used when a patient needs a blood transfusion but: •human blood is not available •there is a high risk of blood infection •there isn't
2) Coronary artery disease is usually caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the walls of the coronary arteries. The fatty deposits, called atheroma, are made up of cholesterol and other waste substances. The build-up of atheroma on the walls of the coronary arteries makes the arteries narrower and restricts the flow of blood to the heart. Cholesterol is a fat made by the liver from the saturated fat that we eat. Cholesterol is essential for healthy cells, but if there is too much in the blood it can lead to CAD.
Plasma and red blood cells transport substances to or away from cell. White blood cells and platelets are parts of the immune system. Blood plasma is mostly made up of water which is from respiration and is absorbed from the large intestine. Water can also be reabsorbed from the kidney. This is very important as this allows osmosis occurs in our bodies.
Dehydration is also a cause for a high hematocrit. If saline or other fluids are being supplied, they will dilute the sample and cause the hematocrit to be artificially low. Some conditions that may lead to a low hematocrit include destruction of RBCs, leukemia, malnutrition,
White blood cells or leukocytes, are a part of the immune system and help our bodies fight infection. They circulate in the blood so that they can be transported to an area where an infection has developed. In a normal adult body there are 4,000 to 10,000 white blood cells per microliter of blood. When the number of white blood cells in your blood increases, this is a sign of an infection somewhere in your body. Most white blood cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes) are formed in the bone marrow.
There are 3 types of fat and they are saturated fats, trans fats or hydrogenated fats and unsaturated fats. Saturated fats Saturated fats are kind of fats that get solid at the room temperature. Because of this, they are called as “solid” fats. Saturated fats cause to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. According to the WebMD, LDL collects in the walls of blood vessels, causing the blockages of atherosclerosis.
Centrifugation Of Blood Blood banks are global wide industries that are involved in the separation of mixtures obtained from living matter. They take blood donation from humans and separate the white/red bloods cells platelets and plasma from each other for various beneficial uses, for example plasma or platelet transfusion. Centrifuging is used to hasten the separation of blood. Centrifugation is a separation process which uses the action of centrifugal force to promote accelerated settling of particles in a solid-liquid mixture. There are different types of centrifugal separation.
When CO2 is higher, pH is lower or acidic. When pH is acidic, hemoglobin is released to tissues that need oxygen. The relationship between oxygen afﬁnity and pH Compare the biochemical structure of hemoglobin to myoglobin The molecular difference between normal and sickle forms of hemoglobin The difference between normal and sickle red blood cells at the cellular level How the diseased cells are different from normal red blood cells in their capacity to carry oxygen A normal RBC is round and concave shaped that easily moves through the bloodstream. A sickle hemoglobin releasing oxygen sticks together, forms ﬁber formations that causes the sickle appearance. This decreases the capacity to carry oxygen and also by not moving through smaller circulation easily causes blockages.