Differences • Structure is tense (releasing O20 or relaxed (accepting O2). • Color is bright red (oxygenated) or dark red to blueish (non-oxygenated). • High Ph and low CO2 = O2 attachment, Low Ph and high CO2 = O2 release The Bohr Effect Hemoglobin vs Myoglobin Structure Hemoglobin vs Myoglobin Structure Molecular Difference between Normal and Sickle forms of Hemoglobin. The Difference between Normal and Sickle RBCs Compare how diseased cells differ from normal red blood cells in their capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.
Write the equation for the chemical reaction that occurs for the transposrt of carbon dioxide as bicarbonate ions in blood:__ 3. The three basic steps of respiration are pulmonary ventilation, external respiration and cellular respiration. 4. For inhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be less than atmospheric pressure; for exhalation to occur, air pressure must be greater than atmospheric pressure. 5.
Stop & Think Questions: What is the relationship between fluid flow and viscosity? You correctly answered: b. They are inversely proportional to each other. What effect do you think aplastic anemia (reduced red blood cells) would have on blood flow? You correctly answered: a. increased blood flow due to decreased viscosity Experiment Data: Flow (ml/min) 490.6 245.3 163.5 122.7 98.1 81.8 70.1 61.3 Radius (mm) 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 Viscosity 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 Length (mm) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Pressure (mm Hg) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 02/09/15 page 2 Post-lab Quiz Results You scored 100% by answering 4 out of 4 questions correctly.
Name: Alexis Savastano How Does pH Affect an Enzyme? Catalase is an enzyme that helps decompose the toxic hydrogen peroxide that is produced during normal cell activities. The products of this reaction are water and oxygen gas. The pressure of the oxygen gas in a closed container increases as oxygen is produced. Any increase in the rate of reaction will cause an increase in the pressure of the oxygen.
| | | | | Selected Answer: | is inhibited by alcohol | Answers: | increases urine production | | promotes dehydration | | is produced in the adenohypophysis | | is inhibited by alcohol | | | | | * Question 3 1 out of 1 points | | | Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the ________. | | | | | Selected Answer: | thymus gland | Answers: | adrenal medulla | | pancreas | | thyroid gland | | thymus gland | | | | | * Question 4 1 out of 1 points | | | Figure 15.1 Using Figure 15.1, match the following: Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain. | | | | | Selected Answer: | B | Correct Answer: | | Evaluation Method | Correct Answer | Case Sensitivity | Exact Match | B | | | | | | | * Question 5 1 out of 1 points | | | Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________. | | | | | Selected Answer: | cortisol | Answers: | aldosterone | | insulin | | secretin | | cortisol | | | | | * Question 6 1 out of 1 points | | | Figure 15.1 Using Figure 15.1, match the following: Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ. | | | | | Selected Answer: | A | Correct Answer: | | Evaluation Method | Correct Answer | Case Sensitivity | Exact Match | A | | | | | | | * Question 7 1 out of 1 points | | | Figure 15.2 Using Figure 15.2, match the following
A) is neutralized by water B) is surrounded by water molecules C) reacts and forms a covalent bond to water D) aggregates with other molecules or ions to form a micelle in water Answer: B Page Ref: Section 3 11 9) Which would you expect to be most soluble in water? A) I B) II C) III D) IV Answer: A Page Ref: Section 3 10) Solutes diffuse more slowly in cytoplasm than in water because of A) the higher viscosity of water. B) the higher heat of vaporization of water. C) the presence of many crowded molecules in the cytoplasm. D) the absence of charged molecules inside cells.
It is converted to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying enzyme in the blood, by a red blood cell enzyme called methemoglobin reductase. Because infants under that age of six months have little methemoglobin reductase in their systems, an excess of methemoglobin, or methemoglobinemia, can be fatal if left untreated. Excessive nitrates in drinking water can adversely affect children’s health, sometimes causing blue baby syndrome. When ingested, these nitrates are converted to nitrite in the digestive system; these nitrites react with the hemoglobin in the blood, forming high amounts of methemoglobin. Since methemoglobin cannot carry oxygen, if enough too much of the enzyme is in the blood, the infant’s tissue and organs may be deprived of oxygen.
Solubility and Conductivity Introduction Solubility by definition means “the quality or property of being soluble; relative capability of being dissolved” and in chemistry this tells us whether or not a substance is dissolvable, but in the medical field it can mean you have a homeostatic imbalance (Webster, 2010). They use “a screening test for sickle cell hemoglobin (Hb S), which is reduced by dithionite and is insoluble in concentrated inorganic buffer; addition of blood showing Hb S to buffer and dithionite causes opacity of the solution” (Solubility, 2012). This is just one of many uses of solubility in the medical field. Conductivity by dictionary definition is “Physics. The property or power of conducting heat, electricity, or sound” and is used as such in chemistry (Dictionary, 2014).
Explain your results with reference to the concentration of respiratory gases. The body constantly produces CO2 as a by-product of the metabolic energy production. Normally carbon dioxide is carried to the lungs by the blood and is expelled though exhalation. However, holding your breath increases the concentration of CO2 in the bloodstream which can cause suffocation, or feel unconscious. One of the most common causes of hyperventilating is high levels of oxygen in the blood.
NAME- IBIFURO SAM-EPELLE CLASS-SS2P SUBJECT-BIOLOGY TECAHER-MRS.SANNI Gas exchange Gas exchange occurs as a result of respiration, when carbon dioxide is excreted and oxygen taken up, and photosynthesis, when oxygen is excreted and carbon dioxide is taken up. The rate of gas exchange is affected by: * the area available for diffusion * the distance over which diffusion occurs * the concentration gradient across the gas exchange surface * the speed with which molecules diffuse through membranes. Efficient gas exchange systems must: * have a large surface area to volume ratio * be thin * have mechanisms for maintaining steep concentration gradients across themselves * be permeable to gases. Single-celled organisms are aquatic and their cell surface membrane has a sufficiently large surface area to volume ratio to act as an efficient gas exchange surface. In larger organisms, permeable, thin, flat structures have all the properties of efficient gas exchange surfaces but need water to prevent their dehydration and give them mechanical support.