Rome, Gupta, Han

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Ancient civilizations of the Roman empire (500-27 BC), Han dynasty of China (206-220 CE) and Gupta empire in India (320-550 CE) all share similarities and differences in political and social organization. From the republic of Rome during the control of Octavian and Augustus to the establishment of caste membership in the Guptan empire. Also, the organization of a strong centralized government during Han dynasty. Other than political concern, these civilizations shared common characteristics of social organization. For example, a system of social hierarchy and a society based on patriarchal. However, political and social factors became an issue later on during decline of their empire. To start off with, Rome and Gupta do not have much in common in political factors than that of social structure. Rome was a republic that was based on absolute power of a ruler who commanded loyalty of the military and the roman people. Controlled by a non-heredity emperor, which was chosen by the Senate, usually by predecessor. Rome developed a set of laws that all had to follow. In contrast, the Gupta Empire lacked political organization due to geography and focused more on caste membership and group allegiances also basing on military conquest. A similarity that these empires share is the organization of social classes. Also the acquisition and inheritance of property. In Rome, they had basic distinctions between patricians and plebeians, and a middle class of merchants that grew during course of the empire. Paterfamilias where the male dominated the family, which goes into patriarchal. In the Gupta Empire, they had a social hierarchy based on caste membership, which strictly dictated ones occupation. On the other hand, in an earlier part of the time period, women had property rights. Wealthy women followed ritual of sati where the widow cremates herself in her husband’s funeral

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