Skinner – Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist Skinner, which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior.
Contrast Sigmund Freud’s view of human nature with the view of Abraham Maslow. With which, if either, view do you agree? 4. Altruism refers to behavior that helps others but does not appear to help the person performing the behavior. Describe an example of altruistic behavior, and state how a psychodynamic psychologist might explain the behavior.
What are some examples of conditioned emotional response that you have observed in yourself or someone you know? What behaviors can best be learned by using classical conditioning methods? Provide two “real-life” examples of classical conditioning in your explanation. What is operant conditioning? How do reinforcement, punishment, and extinction apply to operant conditioning?
i.e. The forces that drive it and make us act the way we do. This method has made important contributions to counseling as a whole as a lot of therapists and counsellors, even if they follow different psychological theories, have been influenced by it. This approach has emerged from psychoanalysis whose founder is Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Freud assumed that our behavior is caused by unconscious thoughts, our desires and impulses which is also how human behaviour is explained in the psychodynamic approach.
Many other experts have contributed to the subject since then, and continue to do so. The ‘psychological contract’ was defined by Professor David Guest as ‘the perceptions of the two parties, employee and employer, of what their mutual obligations are towards each other’ (Guest, DE and Conway, N. 2002). Theorists created various models in an attempt to help explain the many aspects which make up and that can affect the ‘psychological contract’. These models include, ‘The Components of The Psychological Contract’ (Guest D. and Conway N 2004.) and the ‘Psychological Contracts Iceberg Model’ (Chapman, A 2010).
Social psychologists have developed the definition of social psychology by many years of scientific research. Social psychology is a mixture of many sciences. “Sometimes the context lies in the traditions of academic psychology, often in sociology or anthropology, sometimes in philosophy or theology, occasionally in history or in economics, frequently in the political life of our day.” (Cherry, 1995) Social psychology is a scientific study of human behavior with social influence, biological and other sciences may be pursued to accumulate correct data when forming social theories. Social psychologists study groups, such as work, religious, cultural and other organized groups to determine how the group may influence members as individuals. Humans usually choose the group to which they would like to belong based on personal comfort levels.
Personality Analysis Paper PSY 405 Tammy Poe September 28, 2011 Jerry Mote A large number of psychologist and philosophers have examined, tested, researched, and analyzed theories associated with behavior and personality. Theories of personalities provide the significant factors, influences affiliated with personality development as well as the ideas of traits; one’s culture, religion, beliefs, and factors such as disabilities, drugs, alcohol, and influences such as a parent, teacher, object needs or wants, and other affects related to personality. In this paper the subject to explain is the theoretical approaches of humanistic and existential theory, and the dispositional approach theory. The paper includes theoretical approaches, and the role of personality and behaviors. Including personality characteristics that contribute to these theories, along with the interpersonal relationship’s associated with the humanistic, existential, and dispositional theories.
Abstract This essay traces the influences of key historical founders of the psychological perspective known as behaviourism. It provides a definition, together with an understanding of the main concepts and principles of behaviourism. This includes tracing the notions of early theorists on how behaviour can be observed as a reflex, through a conditioned reflex, the influence of emotions on learned behaviour, and the role that reinforcement can have in shaping behaviour. The studies and theories posed will demonstrate the usefulness as behavourism as a scientific investigation of observable behaviour. Finally it provides examples of the practical use of behaviourism as a clinical intervention.
Human personality is a key concept of individual differences in Psychology. There have been many different approaches to defining personality over the years however there is no accepted meaning although it has various definitions; one particular definition is quite significant: “....the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought” (Allport, 196) Personality theories are developed to discover issues such as why people differ from each other. The main approaches which define personality are psychoanalytical approaches (which are adopted by Freud), learning theories, cognitive theories, the trait approach, biological basis and the humanistic theories of personality. The humanistic theory is a big influence in contributing to the definition of personality. The humanistic theory of personality see’s the individual as unique and it views the world from different perspectives.
For example, Skinnerian conditioning as a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). Motivation is a condition that energizes behavior and gives it direction. It is experienced subjectively as a conscious desire For example, the